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Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1286;

Status of Retinoids and Carotenoids and Associations with Clinical Outcomes in Maternal-Infant Pairs in Nigeria

College of Allied Health Professions Medical Nutrition Education, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-4045, USA
College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-4375, USA
Pediatrics 981205 Nebraska Medical Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-1205, USA
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health 655 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
University of Abuja Teaching Hospital Gwagwalada-Zuba, Gwagwalada P.M.B. 228, Nigeria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A and Human Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [272 KB, uploaded 18 September 2018]


Vitamin A is an essential nutrient in pregnancy, and other carotenoids have been independently associated with maternal-infant outcomes. The objective of this study was to quantify the status of vitamin A and carotenoids in Nigerian maternal-infant pairs at delivery, compare these to a cohort from a developed nation, and determine the impact on clinical outcomes. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected in 99 Nigerian mother-infant pairs. Concentrations of lutein + zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α- and β-carotenes, and retinol were measured using HPLC. Descriptive statistics were calculated and Spearman coefficients were used to assess correlations between maternal and cord measurements; Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare median plasma values between dichotomous variables. Linear regression models were used to adjust for relevant confounders. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Thirty-five percent of mothers had plasma retinol concentrations ≤0.70 µmol/L; 82% of infants had plasma retinol concentrations ≤0.70 µmol/L at delivery. Maternal and infant concentrations of vitamin A compounds were highly correlated and were associated with newborn growth and Apgar scores. Despite plasma concentrations of pro-vitamin A carotenoids higher than those reported in other populations, pregnant Nigerian women have a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency. As vitamin A related compounds are modifiable by diet, future research determining the clinical impact of these compounds is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin A; carotenoids; lutein; β-carotene; pregnancy; maternal-child vitamin A; carotenoids; lutein; β-carotene; pregnancy; maternal-child
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Hanson, C.; Lyden, E.; Anderson-Berry, A.; Kocmich, N.; Rezac, A.; Delair, S.; Furtado, J.; Van Ormer, M.; Izevbigie, N.; Olateju, E.; Adaba, G.; Anigilaje, E.; Tahiru, T.; Obaro, S. Status of Retinoids and Carotenoids and Associations with Clinical Outcomes in Maternal-Infant Pairs in Nigeria. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1286.

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