Next Article in Journal
Hidden Hunger: Solutions for America’s Aging Populations
Next Article in Special Issue
Implication of Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) in Disease: Potential Biomarker or New Therapeutic Target
Previous Article in Journal
Health and Nutrition Studies Related to Cereal Biodiversity: A Participatory Multi-Actor Literature Review Approach
Previous Article in Special Issue
Choline Supplementation Prevents a Hallmark Disturbance of Kwashiorkor in Weanling Mice Fed a Maize Vegetable Diet: Hepatic Steatosis of Undernutrition
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091209

Glucose and Fat Tolerance Tests Induce Differential Responses in Plasma Choline Metabolites in Healthy Subjects

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Saarland University Hospital, Building 57, 66424 Homburg/Saar, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 26 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Aspects of Dietary Choline)
Full-Text   |   PDF [271 KB, uploaded 4 September 2018]

Abstract

Plasma choline shows associations with plasma glucose and lipids. We studied changes of choline metabolites after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and fat tolerance test (OFTT). Eighteen healthy subjects (mean age 54.3 years; BMI 26.8 kg/m2) underwent 2 tests. First, OFTT (80 g fat) was applied and blood was collected at baseline and 4 h after OFTT. Seven days later, 75 g glucose was applied and blood was collected at baseline and 2 h after OGTT. Plasma concentrations of choline, betaine, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), dimethylglycine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), lipids and glucose were measured. After OFTT, plasma choline declined (10.6 to 9.2 µmol/L; p = 0.004), betaine declined (33.4 to 31.7 µmol/L; p = 0.003), TMAO slightly increased (4.1 to 5.6 µmol/L; p = 0.105), glucose declined (5.39 to 4.98 mmol/L; p < 0.001), and triglycerides increased (1.27 to 2.53 mmol/L; p < 0.001). After OGTT, plasma choline increased (10.1 to 11.1 µmol/L; p < 0.001), TMAO declined (4.0 to 3.5 µmol/L; p = 0.029), dimethylglycine declined (2.0 to 1.7 µmol/L; p = 0.005), SAM declined (103 to 96 nmol/L; p = 0.041), but betaine, glucose, and SAM were unchanged. In conclusion, OFTT lowered plasma betaine and choline and caused heterogeneous changes in plasma TMAO. OGTT reduced the flow of methyl groups and plasma TMAO. View Full-Text
Keywords: choline; trimethylamine N-oxide; diabetes; methylation; metabolic syndrome; lipids; glucose choline; trimethylamine N-oxide; diabetes; methylation; metabolic syndrome; lipids; glucose
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Obeid, R.; Awwad, H.M.; Knell, A.I.; Hübner, U.; Geisel, J. Glucose and Fat Tolerance Tests Induce Differential Responses in Plasma Choline Metabolites in Healthy Subjects. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1209.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top