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Open AccessArticle

Glucose and Fat Tolerance Tests Induce Differential Responses in Plasma Choline Metabolites in Healthy Subjects

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Saarland University Hospital, Building 57, 66424 Homburg/Saar, Germany
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Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091209
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 26 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Aspects of Dietary Choline)
Plasma choline shows associations with plasma glucose and lipids. We studied changes of choline metabolites after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and fat tolerance test (OFTT). Eighteen healthy subjects (mean age 54.3 years; BMI 26.8 kg/m2) underwent 2 tests. First, OFTT (80 g fat) was applied and blood was collected at baseline and 4 h after OFTT. Seven days later, 75 g glucose was applied and blood was collected at baseline and 2 h after OGTT. Plasma concentrations of choline, betaine, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), dimethylglycine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), lipids and glucose were measured. After OFTT, plasma choline declined (10.6 to 9.2 µmol/L; p = 0.004), betaine declined (33.4 to 31.7 µmol/L; p = 0.003), TMAO slightly increased (4.1 to 5.6 µmol/L; p = 0.105), glucose declined (5.39 to 4.98 mmol/L; p < 0.001), and triglycerides increased (1.27 to 2.53 mmol/L; p < 0.001). After OGTT, plasma choline increased (10.1 to 11.1 µmol/L; p < 0.001), TMAO declined (4.0 to 3.5 µmol/L; p = 0.029), dimethylglycine declined (2.0 to 1.7 µmol/L; p = 0.005), SAM declined (103 to 96 nmol/L; p = 0.041), but betaine, glucose, and SAM were unchanged. In conclusion, OFTT lowered plasma betaine and choline and caused heterogeneous changes in plasma TMAO. OGTT reduced the flow of methyl groups and plasma TMAO. View Full-Text
Keywords: choline; trimethylamine N-oxide; diabetes; methylation; metabolic syndrome; lipids; glucose choline; trimethylamine N-oxide; diabetes; methylation; metabolic syndrome; lipids; glucose
MDPI and ACS Style

Obeid, R.; Awwad, H.M.; Knell, A.I.; Hübner, U.; Geisel, J. Glucose and Fat Tolerance Tests Induce Differential Responses in Plasma Choline Metabolites in Healthy Subjects. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1209.

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