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Open AccessArticle

Vitamin K Antagonists and Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: A 24-Month Follow-Up

Department of Geriatric Medicine, University Memory Clinic; Research Center on Autonomy and Longevity (CeRAL), University Hospital, F-49933 Angers, France
Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3W 1W5, Canada
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Institut du Vieillissement, University Hospital, INSERM-U1027, F-31000 Toulouse, France
Institut de Santé Publique, d’Épidémiologie et de Développement ISPED, Centre INSERM U897-Epidemiologie-Biostatistique, Université Bordeaux, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
Health Faculty and UPRES EA4638, University of Angers, F-49100 Angers, France
Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 666;
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin K in Human Health and Disease)
Vitamin K participates in brain physiology. This study aimed to determine whether using vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), which interfere with the vitamin K cycle, were (i) cross-sectionally associated with altered cognitive performance, and (ii) independent predictors of cognitive changes in older adults over 24 months. Information was collected on the use of VKAs (i.e., warfarin, acenocoumarol, and fluindione) among 378 geriatric outpatients (mean, 82.3 ± 5.6 years; 60.1% female). Global cognitive performance and executive functions were assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) scores, respectively, at baseline and after 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Age, gender, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, disability, gait speed, comorbidities, atrial fibrillation, stroke, carotid artery stenosis, leukoaraiosis grade on computed tomography (CT) scan, psychoactive drugs, antidementia drugs, blood-thinning drugs (i.e., anticoagulants other than VKAs, antiplatelet medications), serum creatinine levels, and vitamin B12 concentrations were considered as potential confounders. Using VKAs was associated with lower (i.e., worse) FAB score at baseline (adjusted β = −2.1, p = 0.026), and with a decrease in FAB score after 24 months (adjusted β = −203.6%, p = 0.010), but not after 12 months (p = 0.659). Using VKAs was not associated with any change in MMSE score at baseline (p = 0.655), after 12 months (p = 0.603), or after 24 months (p = 0.201). In conclusion, we found more severe executive dysfunction at baseline and incident executive decline over 24 months among geriatric patients using VKAs, when compared with their counterparts. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin K antagonist; vitamin K; cognition; executive functions; older adults vitamin K antagonist; vitamin K; cognition; executive functions; older adults
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Brangier, A.; Ferland, G.; Rolland, Y.; Gautier, J.; Féart, C.; Annweiler, C. Vitamin K Antagonists and Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: A 24-Month Follow-Up. Nutrients 2018, 10, 666.

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