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Open AccessArticle

Decreased Levels of Circulating Carboxylated Osteocalcin in Children with Low Energy Fractures: A Pilot Study

1
Department of Pediatric Orthopedics and Traumatology, Medical University of Białystok, 15-089 Białystok, Poland
2
Faculty of Health Sciences, Lomza State University of Applied Sciences, 18-400 Łomża, Poland
3
International Science &Health Foundation, 30-148 Krakow, Poland
4
Department of Statistics and Medical Informatics, Medical University of Białystok, 15-089 Białystok, Poland
5
American Medical Holdings Inc., New York, NY 10314, USA
6
Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, University Maastricht, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060734
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin K in Human Health and Disease)
Objective: In the past decades, an increased interest in the roles of vitamin D and K has become evident, in particular in relation to bone health and prevention of bone fractures. The aim of the current study was to evaluate vitamin D and K status in children with low-energy fractures and in children without fractures. Methods: The study group of 20 children (14 boys, 6 girls) aged 5 to 15 years old, with radiologically confirmed low-energy fractures was compared with the control group of 19 healthy children (9 boys, 10 girls), aged 7 to 17 years old, without fractures. Total vitamin D (25(OH)D3 plus 25(OH)D2), calcium, BALP (bone alkaline phosphatase), NTx (N-terminal telopeptide), and uncarboxylated (ucOC) and carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) serum concentrations were evaluated. Ratio of serum uncarboxylated osteocalcin to serum carboxylated osteocalcin ucOC:cOC (UCR) was used as an indicator of bone vitamin K status. Logistic regression models were created to establish UCR influence for odds ratio of low-energy fractures in both groups. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the serum calcium, NTx, BALP, or total vitamin D levels between the two groups. There was, however, a statistically significant difference in the UCR ratio. The median UCR in the fracture group was 0.471 compared with the control group value of 0.245 (p < 0.0001). In the logistic regression analysis, odds ratio of low-energy fractures for UCR was calculated, with an increased risk of fractures by some 78.3 times. Conclusions: In this pilot study, better vitamin K status expressed as the ratio of ucOC:cOC-UCR—is positively and statistically significantly correlated with lower rate of low-energy fracture incidence. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; bone low energy fractures; vitamin K deficiency children; bone low energy fractures; vitamin K deficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Popko, J.; Karpiński, M.; Chojnowska, S.; Maresz, K.; Milewski, R.; Badmaev, V.; Schurgers, L.J. Decreased Levels of Circulating Carboxylated Osteocalcin in Children with Low Energy Fractures: A Pilot Study. Nutrients 2018, 10, 734. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060734

AMA Style

Popko J, Karpiński M, Chojnowska S, Maresz K, Milewski R, Badmaev V, Schurgers LJ. Decreased Levels of Circulating Carboxylated Osteocalcin in Children with Low Energy Fractures: A Pilot Study. Nutrients. 2018; 10(6):734. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060734

Chicago/Turabian Style

Popko, Janusz; Karpiński, Michał; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Maresz, Katarzyna; Milewski, Robert; Badmaev, Vladimir; Schurgers, Leon J. 2018. "Decreased Levels of Circulating Carboxylated Osteocalcin in Children with Low Energy Fractures: A Pilot Study" Nutrients 10, no. 6: 734. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060734

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