Next Article in Journal
Hepatoprotective Effects of Insect Extracts in an Animal Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Next Article in Special Issue
A Novel Biomimetic Tool for Assessing Vitamin K Status Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers
Previous Article in Journal
Impact of First Meal Size during Prolonged Sitting on Postprandial Glycaemia in Individuals with Prediabetes: A Randomised, Crossover Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Vitamin K Antagonists and Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: A 24-Month Follow-Up
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Decreased Levels of Circulating Carboxylated Osteocalcin in Children with Low Energy Fractures: A Pilot Study

Department of Pediatric Orthopedics and Traumatology, Medical University of Białystok, 15-089 Białystok, Poland
Faculty of Health Sciences, Lomza State University of Applied Sciences, 18-400 Łomża, Poland
International Science &Health Foundation, 30-148 Krakow, Poland
Department of Statistics and Medical Informatics, Medical University of Białystok, 15-089 Białystok, Poland
American Medical Holdings Inc., New York, NY 10314, USA
Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, University Maastricht, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 734;
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin K in Human Health and Disease)
PDF [396 KB, uploaded 6 June 2018]


Objective: In the past decades, an increased interest in the roles of vitamin D and K has become evident, in particular in relation to bone health and prevention of bone fractures. The aim of the current study was to evaluate vitamin D and K status in children with low-energy fractures and in children without fractures. Methods: The study group of 20 children (14 boys, 6 girls) aged 5 to 15 years old, with radiologically confirmed low-energy fractures was compared with the control group of 19 healthy children (9 boys, 10 girls), aged 7 to 17 years old, without fractures. Total vitamin D (25(OH)D3 plus 25(OH)D2), calcium, BALP (bone alkaline phosphatase), NTx (N-terminal telopeptide), and uncarboxylated (ucOC) and carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) serum concentrations were evaluated. Ratio of serum uncarboxylated osteocalcin to serum carboxylated osteocalcin ucOC:cOC (UCR) was used as an indicator of bone vitamin K status. Logistic regression models were created to establish UCR influence for odds ratio of low-energy fractures in both groups. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the serum calcium, NTx, BALP, or total vitamin D levels between the two groups. There was, however, a statistically significant difference in the UCR ratio. The median UCR in the fracture group was 0.471 compared with the control group value of 0.245 (p < 0.0001). In the logistic regression analysis, odds ratio of low-energy fractures for UCR was calculated, with an increased risk of fractures by some 78.3 times. Conclusions: In this pilot study, better vitamin K status expressed as the ratio of ucOC:cOC-UCR—is positively and statistically significantly correlated with lower rate of low-energy fracture incidence. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; bone low energy fractures; vitamin K deficiency children; bone low energy fractures; vitamin K deficiency

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Popko, J.; Karpiński, M.; Chojnowska, S.; Maresz, K.; Milewski, R.; Badmaev, V.; Schurgers, L.J. Decreased Levels of Circulating Carboxylated Osteocalcin in Children with Low Energy Fractures: A Pilot Study. Nutrients 2018, 10, 734.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top