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Caffeine-Related Deaths: Manner of Deaths and Categories at Risk

Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
NESMOS (Neuroscience, Mental Health, and Sensory Organs) Department, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 611;
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive compound worldwide. It is mostly found in coffee, tea, energizing drinks and in some drugs. However, it has become really easy to obtain pure caffeine (powder or tablets) on the Internet markets. Mechanisms of action are dose-dependent. Serious toxicities such as seizure and cardiac arrhythmias, seen with caffeine plasma concentrations of 15 mg/L or higher, have caused poisoning or, rarely, death; otherwise concentrations of 3–6 mg/kg are considered safe. Caffeine concentrations of 80–100 mg/L are considered lethal. The aim of this systematic review, performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for the identification and selection of studies, is to review fatal cases in which caffeine has been recognized as the only cause of death in order to identify potential categories at risk. A total of 92 cases have been identified. These events happened more frequently in infants, psychiatric patients, and athletes. Although caffeine intoxication is relatively uncommon, raising awareness about its lethal consequences could be useful for both clinicians and pathologists to identify possible unrecognized cases and prevent related severe health conditions and deaths. View Full-Text
Keywords: accidental death; caffeine; caffeine intoxication; intoxication; Suicide accidental death; caffeine; caffeine intoxication; intoxication; Suicide
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Cappelletti, S.; Piacentino, D.; Fineschi, V.; Frati, P.; Cipolloni, L.; Aromatario, M. Caffeine-Related Deaths: Manner of Deaths and Categories at Risk. Nutrients 2018, 10, 611.

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