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Open AccessArticle

Higher Dietary Magnesium Intake and Higher Magnesium Status Are Associated with Lower Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

1
Department of Internal Medicine/Nephrology, ZGT Hospital, 7609 PP Almelo, The Netherlands
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, 9713EZ Groningen, The Netherlands
3
Centre of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases (CORPS), Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Tilburg University, 5037 AB Tilburg, The Netherlands
4
Institute for Food, Nutrition and Health, University of Reading, Reading RG1 5EX, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030307
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Intake and Human Health)
In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the handling of magnesium is disturbed. Magnesium deficiency may be associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated the associations between (1) dietary magnesium intake; (2) 24 h urinary magnesium excretion; and (3) plasma magnesium concentration with prevalent CHD in T2D patients. This cross-sectional analysis was performed on baseline data from the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente-1 (DIALECT-1, n = 450, age 63 ± 9 years, 57% men, and diabetes duration of 11 (7–18) years). Prevalence ratios (95% CI) of CHD by sex-specific quartiles of magnesium indicators, as well as by magnesium intake per dietary source, were determined using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. CHD was present in 100 (22%) subjects. Adjusted CHD prevalence ratios for the highest compared to the lowest quartiles were 0.40 (0.20, 0.79) for magnesium intake, 0.63 (0.32, 1.26) for 24 h urinary magnesium excretion, and 0.62 (0.32, 1.20) for plasma magnesium concentration. For every 10 mg increase of magnesium intake from vegetables, the prevalence of CHD was, statistically non-significantly, lower (0.75 (0.52, 1.08)). In this T2D cohort, higher magnesium intake, higher 24 h urinary magnesium excretion, and higher plasma magnesium concentration are associated with a lower prevalence of CHD. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronary heart disease; diabetes mellitus type 2; dietary magnesium intake; urinary magnesium excretion; plasma magnesium concentration coronary heart disease; diabetes mellitus type 2; dietary magnesium intake; urinary magnesium excretion; plasma magnesium concentration
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Gant, C.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Binnenmars, S.H.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Navis, G.; Laverman, G.D. Higher Dietary Magnesium Intake and Higher Magnesium Status Are Associated with Lower Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients 2018, 10, 307.

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