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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Processing and Seasonality on the Iodine and Selenium Concentration of Cow’s Milk Produced in Northern Ireland (NI): Implications for Population Dietary Intake

1
Nutrition Innovation Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine BT52 1SA, UK
2
LGC, Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LY, UK
3
The Dairy Council for Northern Ireland, Edgewater Road, Belfast BT3 9JQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030287
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 25 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
Cow’s milk is the most important dietary source of iodine in the UK and Ireland, and also contributes to dietary selenium intakes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of season, milk fat class (whole; semi-skimmed; skimmed) and pasteurisation on iodine and selenium concentrations in Northern Ireland (NI) milk, and to estimate the contribution of this milk to consumer iodine and selenium intakes. Milk samples (unpasteurised, whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed) were collected weekly from two large NI creameries between May 2013 and April 2014 and were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Using milk consumption data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) Rolling Programme, the contribution of milk (at iodine and selenium concentrations measured in the present study) to UK dietary intakes was estimated. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) iodine concentration of milk was 475.9 ± 63.5 µg/kg and the mean selenium concentration of milk was 17.8 ± 2.7 µg/kg. Season had an important determining effect on the iodine, but not the selenium, content of cow’s milk, where iodine concentrations were highest in milk produced in spring compared to autumn months (534.3 ± 53.7 vs. 433.6 ± 57.8 µg/kg, respectively; p = 0.001). The measured iodine and selenium concentrations of NI milk were higher than those listed in current UK Food Composition Databases (Food Standards Agency (FSA) (2002); FSA (2015)). The dietary modelling analysis confirmed that milk makes an important contribution to iodine and selenium intakes. This contribution may be higher than previously estimated if iodine and selenium (+25.0 and +1.1 µg/day respectively) concentrations measured in the present study were replicable across the UK at the current level of milk consumption. Iodine intakes were theoretically shown to vary by season concurrent with the seasonal variation in NI milk iodine concentrations. Routine monitoring of milk iodine concentrations is required and efforts should be made to understand reasons for fluctuations in milk iodine concentrations, in order to realise the nutritional impact to consumers. View Full-Text
Keywords: iodine; selenium; cow’s milk; seasonality; processing; dietary intake; public health iodine; selenium; cow’s milk; seasonality; processing; dietary intake; public health
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O’Kane, S.M.; Pourshahidi, L.K.; Mulhern, M.S.; Weir, R.R.; Hill, S.; O’Reilly, J.; Kmiotek, D.; Deitrich, C.; Mackle, E.M.; Fitzgerald, E.; Lowis, C.; Johnston, M.; Strain, J.; Yeates, A.J. The Effect of Processing and Seasonality on the Iodine and Selenium Concentration of Cow’s Milk Produced in Northern Ireland (NI): Implications for Population Dietary Intake. Nutrients 2018, 10, 287.

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