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Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030280

Suboptimal Iodine Status among Pregnant Women in the Oslo Area, Norway

1
Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, OsloMet — Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo 0310, Norway
2
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas 1433, Norway
3
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo 0403, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
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Abstract

Norway has been considered iodine replete for decades; however, recent studies indicate reemergence of inadequate iodine status in different population groups. We assessed iodine status in pregnant women based on urinary iodine concentration (UIC), urinary iodine excretion (UIE), and iodine intake from food and supplements. In 804 pregnant women, 24-h iodine intakes from iodine-rich foods and iodine-containing supplements were calculated. In 777 women, iodine concentration was measured in spot urine samples by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, 49 of the women collected a 24-h urine sample for assessment of UIE and iodine intake from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Median UIC was 92 µg/L. Fifty-five percent had a calculated iodine intake below estimated average requirement (EAR) (160 µg/day). Iodine intake from food alone did not provide the amount of iodine required to meet maternal and fetal needs during pregnancy. In multiple regression models, hypothyroidism, supplemental iodine and maternal age were positively associated with UIC, while gestational age and smoking were negatively associated, explaining 11% of the variance. This study clearly shows that pregnant women in the Oslo area are mild to moderate iodine deficient and public health strategies are needed to improve and secure adequate iodine status. View Full-Text
Keywords: iodine status; pregnancy; iodine deficiency; iodine intake; urinary iodine concentration; urinary iodine excretion; Norway iodine status; pregnancy; iodine deficiency; iodine intake; urinary iodine concentration; urinary iodine excretion; Norway
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Henjum, S.; Aakre, I.; Lilleengen, A.M.; Garnweidner-Holme, L.; Borthne, S.; Pajalic, Z.; Blix, E.; Gjengedal, E.L.F.; Brantsæter, A.L. Suboptimal Iodine Status among Pregnant Women in the Oslo Area, Norway. Nutrients 2018, 10, 280.

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