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Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1923; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121923

Protein, Amino Acid, Fatty Acid Composition, and in Vitro Digestibility of Bread Fortified with Oncorhynchus tschawytscha Powder

1
School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
2
Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Lincoln University, Christchurch 7647, New Zealand
3
Riddet Research Institute, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract

This study investigated protein, amino acid, fatty acid composition, in vitro starch and protein digestibility, and phenolic and antioxidant composition of bread fortified with salmon fish (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) powder (SFP). The proximate composition in control and SFP breads ranged between (34.00 ± 0.55–31.42 ± 0.73%) moisture, (13.91 ± 0.19–20.04 ± 0.10%) protein, (3.86 ± 0.02–9.13 ± 0.02%) fat, (2.13 ± 0.02–2.42 ± 0.09%) ash, (80.10 ± 0.018–68.42 ± 0.11%) carbohydrate, and (410.8 ± 0.18–435.96 ± 0.36 kcal) energy. The essential amino acids of the control and SFP breads ranged between 261.75 ± 9.23 and 306.96 ± 6.76 mg/g protein, which satisfies the score recommended by FAO/WHO/UNU (2007). Protein digestibility of the products was assessed using an in vitro assay. The protein digestibility, comma, amino acid score, essential amino acid index, biological value, and nutritional index ranged between 79.96 ± 0.65–80.80 ± 0.99%, 0.15 ± 0.06–0.42 ± 0.06%, 62.51 ± 1.15–76.68 ± 1.40%, 56.44 ± 1.05–71.68 ± 1.10%, 8.69 ± 0.10–15.36 ± 0.21%, respectively. Control and SFP breads contained 60.31 ± 0.21–43.60 ± 0.35 g/100 g total fatty acids (saturated fatty acids) and 13.51 ± 0.10–17.00 ± 0.09 g/100 g total fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acids), and SFP breads fulfil the ω-6/ω-3 score recommended by food authority. There was a significant effect of SFP on bread-specific volume, crumb color, and textural properties. The in vitro starch digestibility results illustrate that the incorporation of SFP into wheat bread decreased the potential glycemic response of bread and increased the antioxidant capacity of bread. In conclusion, this nutrient-rich SFP bread has the potential to be a technological alternative for the food industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: bread; salmon powder; protein; fatty acids; in vitro starch digestibility; in vitro protein digestibility; antioxidant activity bread; salmon powder; protein; fatty acids; in vitro starch digestibility; in vitro protein digestibility; antioxidant activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Desai, A.S.; Beibeia, T.; Brennan, M.A.; Guo, X.; Zeng, X.-A.; Brennan, C.S. Protein, Amino Acid, Fatty Acid Composition, and in Vitro Digestibility of Bread Fortified with Oncorhynchus tschawytscha Powder. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1923.

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