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Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121922

Dietary Patterns, Bone Mineral Density, and Risk of Fractures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Nutrition and Health Research Center, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca 62100, Morelos, Mexico
2
Clinical Epidemiology Research Unit, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Ciudad de México 06720, Mexico
3
Center for Population Health Research, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca 62100, Morelos, Mexico
4
Department of Biomedical and Nutritional Sciences, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854, USA
5
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 06720, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 2 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract

The aim of this systematic review was to assess the evidence on the relation between dietary patterns, bone mineral density (BMD), and risk of fracture in different age groups. Medline and Embase were searched for articles that identified dietary patterns and related these to BMD or risk of fracture through May 2018. Multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) comparing the lowest and highest categories of dietary pattern were combined by using a random effects meta-analysis. In total, 31 studies were selected for review, including 18 cohorts, 1 case-control, and 12 cross-sectional studies, in the meta-analysis of Prudent/healthy and Western/unhealthy dietary pattern, BMD, and risk of fracture. There was evidence of a lower risk of fracture when intakes in the highest categories were compared with the lowest categories of Prudent/healthy dietary pattern (OR = 0.81; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.95; p = 0.01). In contrast, when intakes in the highest categories were compared with the lowest categories of Western/unhealthy dietary pattern, a greater risk of fracture (OR = 1.10; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.19; p = 0.01) was observed among men. The present systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence of an inverse association between a Prudent/healthy dietary pattern and risk of low BMD and a positive relation between Western/unhealthy dietary pattern and risk of low BMD. View Full-Text
Keywords: a posteriori; dietary patterns; bone mineral density; fracture risk; systematic review; meta-analysis; children and adolescent; young adults; adults and elderly a posteriori; dietary patterns; bone mineral density; fracture risk; systematic review; meta-analysis; children and adolescent; young adults; adults and elderly
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Denova-Gutiérrez, E.; Méndez-Sánchez, L.; Muñoz-Aguirre, P.; Tucker, K.L.; Clark, P. Dietary Patterns, Bone Mineral Density, and Risk of Fractures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1922.

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