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Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111664

Dietary Intake of Anti-Oxidant Vitamins A, C, and E Is Inversely Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes in Chinese—A 22-Years Population-Based Prospective Study

1
Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
2
Research Center of Heart, Brain, Hormone and Healthy Aging, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
3
Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
4
The School of Public Health, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
5
Department of Medicine-Western Health, Melbourne Medical School, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3021, Australia
6
General Medical Unit, Western Health, St Albans, Victoria 3021, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 4 November 2018
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Abstract

Background: Conflicting and population-dependent findings have been reported from epidemiological studies on the associations of dietary intake of anti-oxidant vitamins with cardiovascular events. We investigated the prospective relationship between dietary intake of anti-oxidant vitamins and incident adverse cardiovascular outcomes amongst Hong Kong Chinese. Methods: In this prospective population-based study, baseline dietary intake of anti-oxidant vitamins (A, C, and E) were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 875 Chinese participants from the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS) in 1995–1996. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of incident adverse cardiovascular outcomes, defined as the first recorded diagnosis of cardiovascular deaths, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke, and coronary or other arterial revascularizations, was calculated per unit intake of each vitamin using multivariable Cox regression. Results: Over a median follow-up of 22 years, 85 participants (9.7%) developed adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Dietary intakes of vitamin A, C, and E were independently and inversely associated with incident adverse cardiovascular outcomes (HR 0.68, 95%CI 0.53–0.88, p = 0.003 for vitamin A; HR 0.66, 95%CI 0.52–0.85, p = 0.001 for vitamin C; and HR 0.57, 95%CI 0.38–0.86, p = 0.017 for vitamin E) after adjustments for conventional cardiovascular risk factors at baseline. Conclusions: Dietary intakes of anti-oxidant vitamins A, C, and E reduced the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in Hong Kong Chinese. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-oxidant; vitamin A; vitamin C; vitamin E; adverse cardiovascular outcomes; chinese; prediction model anti-oxidant; vitamin A; vitamin C; vitamin E; adverse cardiovascular outcomes; chinese; prediction model
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Lee, C.-H.; Chan, R.S.M.; Wan, H.Y.L.; Woo, Y.-C.; Cheung, C.Y.Y.; Fong, C.H.Y.; Cheung, B.M.Y.; Lam, T.-H.; Janus, E.; Woo, J.; Lam, K.S.L. Dietary Intake of Anti-Oxidant Vitamins A, C, and E Is Inversely Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes in Chinese—A 22-Years Population-Based Prospective Study. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1664.

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