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Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1654; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111654

Carotenoid Content in Human Colostrum is Associated to Preterm/Full-Term Birth Condition

1
Department of Food Phytochemistry, Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Campus Universitario, Building 46, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
2
Unidad de Neonatología, Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
3
Institute of Food Science Research (CSIC-UAM), 28049 Madrid, Spain
4
Laboratorio de Espectrometría de Masas, Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), 41013 Sevilla, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids and Human Health)
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Abstract

Factors such as lactation stage and premature and small-for-gestational conditions could lead to great inter-individual variability in the carotenoid content of human milk. The aim was to analyze the carotenoid content in colostrum and mature milk of preterm (PT) and full-term (FT) mothers to establish whether they are significantly different and, if so, the stage of lactation when the differences are established. Samples of blood, colostrum, and mature milk were collected from Spanish donating mothers who gave birth to PT or FT infants. Carotenoids from serum and milk samples were analyzed by HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-MS. Quantitatively, colostrum from PT mothers presented lower total carotenoid content when compared to that from FT mothers. The only exception was lutein, where levels were not different. The transition from colostrum to mature milk makes observed differences in the carotenoid content disappear, since there were no variances between PT and FT groups for both individual and total carotenoid content. The premature birth condition affects the quantitative carotenoid composition of the colostrum but has no effect on the lutein content. This fact could be related to the significant role of this xanthophyll in the development of infant retina and feasibly to cognitive function. View Full-Text
Keywords: breastfeeding; new-born; full-term mothers; preterm mothers; xanthophylls; carotenes; lutein; colostrum; mature milk breastfeeding; new-born; full-term mothers; preterm mothers; xanthophylls; carotenes; lutein; colostrum; mature milk
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Xavier, A.A.O.; Díaz-Salido, E.; Arenilla-Vélez, I.; Aguayo-Maldonado, J.; Garrido-Fernández, J.; Fontecha, J.; Sánchez-García, A.; Pérez-Gálvez, A. Carotenoid Content in Human Colostrum is Associated to Preterm/Full-Term Birth Condition. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1654.

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