Next Article in Journal
Tensor-Based Sparse Representation Classification for Urban Airborne LiDAR Points
Next Article in Special Issue
GPS and BeiDou Differential Code Bias Estimation Using Fengyun-3C Satellite Onboard GNSS Observations
Previous Article in Journal
Spatiotemporally Representative and Cost-Efficient Sampling Design for Validation Activities in Wanglang Experimental Site
Previous Article in Special Issue
Stochastic Models of Very High-Rate (50 Hz) GPS/BeiDou Code and Phase Observations
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(12), 1221;

Ionosphere Model for European Region Based on Multi-GNSS Data and TPS Interpolation

Institute of Geodesy, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 19-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-357 Wroclaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
PDF [2389 KB, uploaded 27 November 2017]


The ionosphere is still considered one of the most significant error sources in precise Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning. On the other hand, new satellite signals and data processing methods allow for a continuous increase in the accuracy of the available ionosphere models derived from GNSS observables. Therefore, many research groups around the world are conducting research on the development of precise ionosphere products. This is also reflected in the establishment of several ionosphere-related working groups by the International Association of Geodesy. Whilst a number of available global ionosphere maps exist today, dense regional GNSS networks often offer the possibility of higher accuracy regional solutions. In this contribution, we propose an approach for regional ionosphere modelling based on un-differenced multi-GNSS carrier phase data for total electron content (TEC) estimation, and thin plate splines for TEC interpolation. In addition, we propose a methodology for ionospheric products self-consistency analysis based on calibrated slant TEC. The results of the presented approach are compared to well-established global ionosphere maps during varied ionospheric conditions. The initial results show that the accuracy of our regional ionospheric vertical TEC maps is well below 1 TEC unit, and that it is at least a factor of 2 better than the global products. View Full-Text
Keywords: ionosphere; global navigation satellite system; TEC; TPS; GNSS ionosphere; global navigation satellite system; TEC; TPS; GNSS

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Krypiak-Gregorczyk, A.; Wielgosz, P.; Borkowski, A. Ionosphere Model for European Region Based on Multi-GNSS Data and TPS Interpolation. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 1221.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top