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Spatiotemporally Representative and Cost-Efficient Sampling Design for Validation Activities in Wanglang Experimental Site

Research Center for Digital Mountain and Remote Sensing Application, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
CREAF, E08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Catalonia, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(12), 1217;
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 26 November 2017
PDF [1330 KB, uploaded 26 November 2017]


Spatiotemporally representative Elementary Sampling Units (ESUs) are required for capturing the temporal variations in surface spatial heterogeneity through field measurements. Since inaccessibility often coexists with heterogeneity, a cost-efficient sampling design is mandatory. We proposed a sampling strategy to generate spatiotemporally representative and cost-efficient ESUs based on the conditioned Latin hypercube sampling scheme. The proposed strategy was constrained by multi-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) imagery, and the ESUs were limited within a sampling feasible region established based on accessibility criteria. A novel criterion based on the Overlapping Area (OA) between the NDVI frequency distribution histogram from the sampled ESUs and that from the entire study area was used to assess the sampling efficiency. A case study in Wanglang National Nature Reserve in China showed that the proposed strategy improves the spatiotemporally representativeness of sampling (mean annual OA = 74.7%) compared to the single-temporally constrained (OA = 68.7%) and the random sampling (OA = 63.1%) strategies. The introduction of the feasible region constraint significantly reduces in-situ labour-intensive characterization necessities at expenses of about 9% loss in the spatiotemporal representativeness of the sampling. Our study will support the validation activities in Wanglang experimental site providing a benchmark for locating the nodes of automatic observation systems (e.g., LAINet) which need a spatially distributed and temporally fixed sampling design. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatiotemporal representative; cost-efficient, sampling design; heterogeneity; validation spatiotemporal representative; cost-efficient, sampling design; heterogeneity; validation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Yin, G.; Li, A.; Verger, A. Spatiotemporally Representative and Cost-Efficient Sampling Design for Validation Activities in Wanglang Experimental Site. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 1217.

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