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Article

Understanding the Present-Day Spatiotemporal Variability of Precipitable Water Vapor over Ethiopia: A Comparative Study between ERA5 and GPS

1
Department of Geodesy and Geodynamics, Ethiopian Space Science and Technology Institute, Addis Ababa P.O. Box 33679, Ethiopia
2
Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMIB), Avenue Circulaire 3, 1180 Uccle, Belgium
3
Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB), Avenue Circulaire 3, 1180 Uccle, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shu-peng Ho
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(3), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14030686
Received: 18 January 2022 / Accepted: 29 January 2022 / Published: 31 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Modelling and Monitoring Using GNSS)
Atmospheric water vapor plays a crucial role in atmospheric, climate change, meteorological, and hydrological processes. In a country like Ethiopia, with its complex topography and synoptic-scale spatiotemporal circulation patterns, the analysis of the spatiotemporal variability of precipitable water vapor (PWV) is very challenging, and is hampered by the lack of long observational datasets. In this study, we process the PWV over eight Ethiopian global positioning system (GPS) sites and one close to the Ethiopian eastern border, for the available common period 2013–2020, and compare with the PWV retrieved from the state-of-the-art ERA5 reanalysis. Both PWV datasets agree very well at our sample, with correlation coefficients between 0.96 and 0.99, GPS-PWV show a moderate wet bias compared to ERA5-PWV for the majority of the sites, and an overall root mean square error of 3.4 mm. Seasonal and diurnal cycles are also well captured by these datasets. The seasonal variations of PWV and precipitation at the sites agree very well. Maximum diurnal PWV amplitudes are observed for stations near water bodies or dense vegetation, such as Arbaminch (ARMI) and Bahir Dar (BDMT). At those stations, the PWV behavior at heavy rainfall events has been investigated and an average 25% increase (resp. decrease) from 12 h before (resp. 12 h after) the start of the rainfall event, when the PWV peaks, has been observed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ethiopia; precipitable water vapor; GPS; ERA5 Ethiopia; precipitable water vapor; GPS; ERA5
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MDPI and ACS Style

Koji, A.K.; Van Malderen, R.; Pottiaux, E.; Van Schaeybroeck, B. Understanding the Present-Day Spatiotemporal Variability of Precipitable Water Vapor over Ethiopia: A Comparative Study between ERA5 and GPS. Remote Sens. 2022, 14, 686. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14030686

AMA Style

Koji AK, Van Malderen R, Pottiaux E, Van Schaeybroeck B. Understanding the Present-Day Spatiotemporal Variability of Precipitable Water Vapor over Ethiopia: A Comparative Study between ERA5 and GPS. Remote Sensing. 2022; 14(3):686. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14030686

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koji, Abdisa Kawo, Roeland Van Malderen, Eric Pottiaux, and Bert Van Schaeybroeck. 2022. "Understanding the Present-Day Spatiotemporal Variability of Precipitable Water Vapor over Ethiopia: A Comparative Study between ERA5 and GPS" Remote Sensing 14, no. 3: 686. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14030686

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