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Article

Concept and Design of Martian Far-IR ORE Spectrometer (MIRORES)

1
Research Centre in Wrocław, Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Podwale 75, 50-449 Wrocław, Poland
2
Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18A, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland
3
Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Bogumiła Krygowskiego 12, 61-680 Poznań, Poland
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Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeże Stanisława Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
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Institut für Planetenforschung, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany
6
European Space Foundation, Grodzka 42/1, 31-044 Kraków, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Louis Scuderi
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(12), 2799; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14122799
Received: 28 April 2022 / Revised: 27 May 2022 / Accepted: 29 May 2022 / Published: 10 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mars Remote Sensing)
Sulfide ores are a major source of noble (Au, Ag, and Pt) and base (Cu, Pb, Zn, Sn, Co, Ni, etc.) metals and will, therefore, be vital for the self-sustainment of future Mars colonies. Martian meteorites are rich in sulfides, which is reflected in recent findings for surface Martian rocks analyzed by the Spirit and Curiosity rovers. However, the only high-resolution (18 m/pixel) infrared (IR) spectrometer orbiting Mars, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), is not well-suited for detecting sulfides on the Martian surface. Spectral interference with silicates impedes sulfide detection in the 0.4–3.9 μm CRISM range. In contrast, at least three common hydrothermal sulfides on Earth and Mars (pyrite, chalcopyrite, marcasite) have prominent absorption peaks in a narrow far-IR (FIR) wavelength range of 23–28 μm. Identifying the global distribution and chemical composition of sulfide ore deposits would help in choosing useful targets for future Mars exploration missions. Therefore, we have designed a new instrument suitable for measuring sulfides in the FIR range called the Martian far-IR Ore Spectrometer (MIRORES). MIRORES will measure radiation in six narrow bands (~0.3 µm in width), including three bands centered on the sulfide absorption bands (23.2, 24.3 and 27.6 µm), two reference bands (21.5 and 26.1) and one band for clinopyroxene interference (29.0 µm). Focusing on sulfides only will make it possible to adapt the instrument size (32 × 32 × 42 cm) and mass (<10 kg) to common microsatellite requirements. The biggest challenges related to this design are: (1) the small field of view conditioned by the high resolution required for such a study (<20 m/pixel), which, in limited space, can only be achieved by the use of the Cassegrain optical system; and (2) a relatively stable measurement temperature to maintain radiometric accuracy and enable precise calibration. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfides; ore minerals; Mars; microsatellite; far-infrared spectroscopy sulfides; ore minerals; Mars; microsatellite; far-infrared spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ciazela, J.; Bakala, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Plocieniak, S.; Zalewska, N.; Pieterek, B.; Mrozek, T.; Ciazela, M.; Paslawski, G.; Steslicki, M.; Szaforz, Z.; Barylak, J.; Kuzaj, M.; Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Muszynski, A.; Rataj, M.; Gburek, S.; Jozefowicz, M.; Marciniak, D. Concept and Design of Martian Far-IR ORE Spectrometer (MIRORES). Remote Sens. 2022, 14, 2799. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14122799

AMA Style

Ciazela J, Bakala J, Kowalinski M, Plocieniak S, Zalewska N, Pieterek B, Mrozek T, Ciazela M, Paslawski G, Steslicki M, Szaforz Z, Barylak J, Kuzaj M, Maturilli A, Helbert J, Muszynski A, Rataj M, Gburek S, Jozefowicz M, Marciniak D. Concept and Design of Martian Far-IR ORE Spectrometer (MIRORES). Remote Sensing. 2022; 14(12):2799. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14122799

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ciazela, Jakub, Jaroslaw Bakala, Miroslaw Kowalinski, Stefan Plocieniak, Natalia Zalewska, Bartosz Pieterek, Tomasz Mrozek, Marta Ciazela, Grzegorz Paslawski, Marek Steslicki, Zaneta Szaforz, Jaromir Barylak, Mateusz Kuzaj, Alessandro Maturilli, Joern Helbert, Andrzej Muszynski, Miroslaw Rataj, Szymon Gburek, Mateusz Jozefowicz, and Dariusz Marciniak. 2022. "Concept and Design of Martian Far-IR ORE Spectrometer (MIRORES)" Remote Sensing 14, no. 12: 2799. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14122799

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