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Article

Surface Freshwater Fluxes in the Arctic and Subarctic Seas during Contrasting Years of High and Low Summer Sea Ice Extent

1
School of the Earth, Ocean and Environment, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
2
Northern Gulf Institute, Mississippi State University, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, USA
3
Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, N-5006 Bergen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yi Luo and Viviane V. Menezes
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(8), 1570; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13081570
Received: 5 March 2021 / Revised: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 15 April 2021 / Published: 18 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Moving Forward on Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity)
Freshwater (FW) flux between the Arctic Ocean and adjacent waterways, predominantly driven by wind and oceanic currents, influences halocline stability and annual sea ice variability which further impacts global circulation and climate. The Arctic recently experienced anomalous years of high and low sea ice extent in the summers of 2013/2014 and 2012/2016, respectively. Here we investigate the interannual variability of oceanic surface FW flux in relation to spatial and temporal variability in sea ice concentration (SIC), sea surface salinity (SSS), and sea surface temperature (SST), focusing on years with summer sea–ice extremes. Our analysis between 2010–2018 illustrate high parameter variability, especially within the Laptev, Kara, and Barents seas, as well as an overall decreasing trend of FW flux through the Fram Strait. We find that in 2012, a maximum average FW flux of 0.32 × 103 ms−1 in October passed over a large portion of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean at 53°N. This study highlights recent changes in the Arctic and Subarctic Seas and the importance of continued monitoring of key variables through remote sensing to understand the dynamics behind these ongoing changes. Observations of FW fluxes through major Arctic routes will be increasingly important as the polar regions become more susceptible to warming, with major impacts on global climate. View Full-Text
Keywords: arctic; subarctic seas; freshwater flux; sea ice concentration; sea surface salinity; sea surface temperature; SMOS; SMAP arctic; subarctic seas; freshwater flux; sea ice concentration; sea surface salinity; sea surface temperature; SMOS; SMAP
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hall, S.B.; Subrahmanyam, B.; Nyadjro, E.S.; Samuelsen, A. Surface Freshwater Fluxes in the Arctic and Subarctic Seas during Contrasting Years of High and Low Summer Sea Ice Extent. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 1570. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13081570

AMA Style

Hall SB, Subrahmanyam B, Nyadjro ES, Samuelsen A. Surface Freshwater Fluxes in the Arctic and Subarctic Seas during Contrasting Years of High and Low Summer Sea Ice Extent. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(8):1570. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13081570

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hall, Sarah B., Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Ebenezer S. Nyadjro, and Annette Samuelsen. 2021. "Surface Freshwater Fluxes in the Arctic and Subarctic Seas during Contrasting Years of High and Low Summer Sea Ice Extent" Remote Sensing 13, no. 8: 1570. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13081570

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