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Article

Countrywide Monitoring of Ground Deformation Using InSAR Time Series: A Case Study from Qatar

1
Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49009, USA
2
Ministry of Municipality and Environment, Doha, Qatar
3
Geology Department, Suez Canal University, Ismalia 41522, Egypt
4
Department of Geological Sciences, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Oriol Monserrat
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(4), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040702
Received: 13 January 2021 / Revised: 6 February 2021 / Accepted: 8 February 2021 / Published: 14 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrology)
Over the past few decades the country of Qatar has been one of the fastest growing economies in the Middle East; it has witnessed a rapid increase in its population, growth of its urban centers, and development of its natural resources. These anthropogenic activities compounded with natural forcings (e.g., climate change) will most likely introduce environmental effects that should be assessed. In this manuscript, we identify and assess one of these effects, namely, ground deformation over the entire country of Qatar. We use the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) InSAR time series approach in conjunction with ALOS Palsar-1 (January 2007 to March 2011) and Sentinel-1 (March 2017 to December 2019) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) datasets to assess ground deformation and conduct spatial and temporal correlations between the observed deformation with relevant datasets to identify the controlling factors. The findings indicate: (1) the deformation products revealed areas of subsidence and uplift with high vertical velocities of up to 35 mm/yr; (2) the deformation rates were consistent with those extracted from the continuously operating reference GPS stations of Qatar; (3) many inland and coastal sabkhas (salt flats) showed evidence for uplift (up to 35 mm/yr) due to the continuous evaporation of the saline waters within the sabkhas and the deposition of the evaporites in the surficial and near-surficial sabkha sediments; (4) the increased precipitation during Sentinel-1 period compared to the ALOS Palsar-1 period led to a rise in groundwater levels and an increase in the areas occupied by surface water within the sabkhas, which in turn increased the rate of deposition of the evaporitic sediments; (5) high subsidence rates (up to 14 mm/yr) were detected over landfills and dumpsites, caused by mechanical compaction and biochemical processes; and (6) the deformation rates over areas surrounding known sinkhole locations were low (+/−2 mm/yr). We suggest that this study can pave the way to similar countrywide studies over the remaining Arabian Peninsula countries and to the development of a ground motion monitoring system for the entire Arabian Peninsula. View Full-Text
Keywords: InSAR; ground deformation; Qatar; monitoring; sabkha; sinkhole; landfill; arid environments InSAR; ground deformation; Qatar; monitoring; sabkha; sinkhole; landfill; arid environments
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MDPI and ACS Style

Emil, M.K.; Sultan, M.; Alakhras, K.; Sataer, G.; Gozi, S.; Al-Marri, M.; Gebremichael, E. Countrywide Monitoring of Ground Deformation Using InSAR Time Series: A Case Study from Qatar. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 702. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040702

AMA Style

Emil MK, Sultan M, Alakhras K, Sataer G, Gozi S, Al-Marri M, Gebremichael E. Countrywide Monitoring of Ground Deformation Using InSAR Time Series: A Case Study from Qatar. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(4):702. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040702

Chicago/Turabian Style

Emil, Mustafa K., Mohamed Sultan, Khaled Alakhras, Guzalay Sataer, Sabreen Gozi, Mohammed Al-Marri, and Esayas Gebremichael. 2021. "Countrywide Monitoring of Ground Deformation Using InSAR Time Series: A Case Study from Qatar" Remote Sensing 13, no. 4: 702. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040702

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