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Article

A Wide Area Multiview Static Crowd Estimation System Using UAV and 3D Training Simulator

Department of Computer Science, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DB, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
S.S. wrote the software, conducted the experiments and wrote the paper. B.T. and H.C.M. advised and supervised S.S., helped with the experimental design, and proof read the paper.
Academic Editors: Anwaar Ulhaq and Douglas Pinto Sampaio Gomes
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(14), 2780; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13142780
Received: 28 May 2021 / Revised: 30 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 July 2021 / Published: 15 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Object and Activity Detection in Remote Sensing Imagery)
Crowd size estimation is a challenging problem, especially when the crowd is spread over a significant geographical area. It has applications in monitoring of rallies and demonstrations and in calculating the assistance requirements in humanitarian disasters. Therefore, accomplishing a crowd surveillance system for large crowds constitutes a significant issue. UAV-based techniques are an appealing choice for crowd estimation over a large region, but they present a variety of interesting challenges, such as integrating per-frame estimates through a video without counting individuals twice. Large quantities of annotated training data are required to design, train, and test such a system. In this paper, we have first reviewed several crowd estimation techniques, existing crowd simulators and data sets available for crowd analysis. Later, we have described a simulation system to provide such data, avoiding the need for tedious and error-prone manual annotation. Then, we have evaluated synthetic video from the simulator using various existing single-frame crowd estimation techniques. Our findings show that the simulated data can be used to train and test crowd estimation, thereby providing a suitable platform to develop such techniques. We also propose an automated UAV-based 3D crowd estimation system that can be used for approximately static or slow-moving crowds, such as public events, political rallies, and natural or man-made disasters. We evaluate the results by applying our new framework to a variety of scenarios with varying crowd sizes. The proposed system gives promising results using widely accepted metrics including MAE, RMSE, Precision, Recall, and F1 score to validate the results. View Full-Text
Keywords: crowd estimation; 3D simulation; unmanned aerial vehicle; synthetic crowd data crowd estimation; 3D simulation; unmanned aerial vehicle; synthetic crowd data
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shukla, S.; Tiddeman, B.; Miles, H.C. A Wide Area Multiview Static Crowd Estimation System Using UAV and 3D Training Simulator. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 2780. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13142780

AMA Style

Shukla S, Tiddeman B, Miles HC. A Wide Area Multiview Static Crowd Estimation System Using UAV and 3D Training Simulator. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(14):2780. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13142780

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shukla, Shivang, Bernard Tiddeman, and Helen C. Miles 2021. "A Wide Area Multiview Static Crowd Estimation System Using UAV and 3D Training Simulator" Remote Sensing 13, no. 14: 2780. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13142780

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