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Remote Sens. 2019, 11(3), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11030335

Soil Moisture Variability in India: Relationship of Land Surface–Atmosphere Fields Using Maximum Covariance Analysis

1
Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
2
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
3
Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502, India
4
National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Gadanki 517112, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assimilation of Remote Sensing Data into Earth System Models)
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Abstract

This study investigates the spatial and temporal variability of the soil moisture in India using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) gridded datasets from June 2002 to April 2017. Significant relationships between soil moisture and different land surface–atmosphere fields (Precipitation, surface air temperature, total cloud cover, and total water storage) were studied, using maximum covariance analysis (MCA) to extract dominant interactions that maximize the covariance between two fields. The first leading mode of MCA explained 56%, 87%, 81%, and 79% of the squared covariance function (SCF) between soil moisture with precipitation (PR), surface air temperature (TEM), total cloud count (TCC), and total water storage (TWS), respectively, with correlation coefficients of 0.65, −0.72, 0.71, and 0.62. Furthermore, the covariance analysis of total water storage showed contrasting patterns with soil moisture, especially over northwest, northeast, and west coast regions. In addition, the spatial distribution of seasonal and annual trends of soil moisture in India was estimated using a robust regression technique for the very first time. For most regions in India, significant positive trends were noticed in all seasons. Meanwhile, a small negative trend was observed over southern India. The monthly mean value of AMSR soil moisture trend revealed a significant positive trend, at about 0.0158 cm3/cm3 per decade during the period ranging from 2002 to 2017. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil moisture; precipitation; temperature; total cloud cover; GRACE; total water storage; MCA analysis soil moisture; precipitation; temperature; total cloud cover; GRACE; total water storage; MCA analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pangaluru, K.; Velicogna, I.; A, G.; Mohajerani, Y.; Ciracì, E.; Charakola, S.; Basha, G.; Rao, S.V.B. Soil Moisture Variability in India: Relationship of Land Surface–Atmosphere Fields Using Maximum Covariance Analysis. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 335.

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