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Statistical Observation of Thunderstorm-Induced Ionospheric Gravity Waves above Low-Latitude Areas in the Northern Hemisphere

1
School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China
2
Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
3
Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(23), 2732; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11232732
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 16 November 2019 / Accepted: 19 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Ionosphere Observation and Investigation)
Gravity waves (GWs) generated in the lower atmosphere can propagate upwards to ionospheric height. In this study, we investigated the correlation between ionospheric GWs detected by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-derived total electron content data and thunderstorm events recorded by a local lightning-detection network in the low-latitude region of Southern China during a four-year period, from 2014 to 2017. Ionospheric GWs were detected on both thunderstorm and non-thunderstorm days. Daytime ionospheric GW activity on high-thunderstorm days showed a similar convex-function-like diurnal variation to thunderstorm activity, which is different to the concave-function-like pattern on non-thunderstorm days. Daytime ionospheric GW activity on low-thunderstorm days showed an approximately linear rising trend and was of a larger magnitude than that of high-thunderstorm days, suggesting it may be mixed by non-thunderstorm origins. Night-time enhancement of ionospheric GW activity was observed on thunderstorm days but not on non-thunderstorm days. Furthermore, ionospheric GW activity on thunderstorm days showed a positive correlation to solar activity. These findings can effectively distinguish thunderstorm-related ionospheric GWs from those of non-thunderstorm origins and provide more comprehensive knowledge of thunderstorm–ionosphere coupling in low-latitude areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS; thunderstorm; ionosphere; gravity waves; low-latitude area GNSS; thunderstorm; ionosphere; gravity waves; low-latitude area
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tang, L.; Chen, W.; Chen, M.; Louis, O.-P. Statistical Observation of Thunderstorm-Induced Ionospheric Gravity Waves above Low-Latitude Areas in the Northern Hemisphere. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2732. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11232732

AMA Style

Tang L, Chen W, Chen M, Louis O-P. Statistical Observation of Thunderstorm-Induced Ionospheric Gravity Waves above Low-Latitude Areas in the Northern Hemisphere. Remote Sensing. 2019; 11(23):2732. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11232732

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tang, Long; Chen, Wu; Chen, Mingli; Louis, Osei-Poku. 2019. "Statistical Observation of Thunderstorm-Induced Ionospheric Gravity Waves above Low-Latitude Areas in the Northern Hemisphere" Remote Sens. 11, no. 23: 2732. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11232732

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