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Trees in Canadian Cities: Indispensable Life Form for Urban Sustainability

School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, 6100 University Ave., Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
Environmental Applied Science and Management, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
Geography and Program in Planning, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G3, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tan Yigitcanlar and Md. Kamruzzaman
Sustainability 2015, 7(6), 7379-7396;
Received: 25 March 2015 / Revised: 1 June 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning, Development and Management of Sustainable Cities)
We argue that a healthy urban forest contributes immensely to the sustainability of cities. The argument is based on a comprehensive array of values elicited from Canadians in several cities. To begin, we define the urban forest as inclusive of all the trees in the city and thus representing the predominant contributor to a city’s green infrastructure. Then we enumerate and explain the broad diversity of ways in which urban people value trees in the city. We, thus, show the myriad pathways by which trees contribute positively to any city’s social, economic, and ecological sustainability. Following a short summary of the ways in which trees may detract from people’s quality of life, we present promising management directions for urban-forest improvement, as we understand the situation in Canada. We conclude that all cities can enhance their sustainability by improving the urban forest. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainability; tree; urban forest; forest values sustainability; tree; urban forest; forest values
MDPI and ACS Style

Duinker, P.N.; Ordóñez, C.; Steenberg, J.W.N.; Miller, K.H.; Toni, S.A.; Nitoslawski, S.A. Trees in Canadian Cities: Indispensable Life Form for Urban Sustainability. Sustainability 2015, 7, 7379-7396.

AMA Style

Duinker PN, Ordóñez C, Steenberg JWN, Miller KH, Toni SA, Nitoslawski SA. Trees in Canadian Cities: Indispensable Life Form for Urban Sustainability. Sustainability. 2015; 7(6):7379-7396.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Duinker, Peter N., Camilo Ordóñez, James W.N. Steenberg, Kyle H. Miller, Sydney A. Toni, and Sophie A. Nitoslawski 2015. "Trees in Canadian Cities: Indispensable Life Form for Urban Sustainability" Sustainability 7, no. 6: 7379-7396.

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