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Article

E-Learning: Direct Effect of Student Learning Effectiveness and Engagement through Project-Based Learning, Team Cohesion, and Flipped Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Graduate School of Business Administration, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea
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Academic Editors: Samo Bobek, Simona Sternad Zabukovsek and Jarmila Zimmermannová
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1724; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031724
Received: 30 November 2021 / Revised: 19 January 2022 / Accepted: 27 January 2022 / Published: 2 February 2022
The cross-impact of project-based learning, team cohesion, and flipped learning was investigated by examining their direct effects on student learning effectiveness, engagement, and engagement effects on learning effectiveness. The results of hypotheses testing were achieved using hierarchical regression analysis with SPSS-25 statistical packages for data analysis. The research model was empirically verified with quantitative data collected from 247 graduate/undergraduate business students based on their own experiences, observations, and engagement. The analysis found that project-based learning (PBL) and team cohesion increased positive direct effects both in student learning effectiveness and engagement. However, flipped learning showed increased positive direct effects in student learning effectiveness and negative effects on engagement. Furthermore, the engagement (itself) had a positive direct effect on student learning effectiveness. The proposed study was performed with the intention to inform practice in terms of increasing retention and enhancing teaching along with student learning quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: project-based learning; team cohesion; flipped learning; learning effectiveness; engagement project-based learning; team cohesion; flipped learning; learning effectiveness; engagement
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MDPI and ACS Style

Umar, M.; Ko, I. E-Learning: Direct Effect of Student Learning Effectiveness and Engagement through Project-Based Learning, Team Cohesion, and Flipped Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Sustainability 2022, 14, 1724. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031724

AMA Style

Umar M, Ko I. E-Learning: Direct Effect of Student Learning Effectiveness and Engagement through Project-Based Learning, Team Cohesion, and Flipped Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Sustainability. 2022; 14(3):1724. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031724

Chicago/Turabian Style

Umar, Muhammad, and Ilsang Ko. 2022. "E-Learning: Direct Effect of Student Learning Effectiveness and Engagement through Project-Based Learning, Team Cohesion, and Flipped Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic" Sustainability 14, no. 3: 1724. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031724

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