# Analysis and Evaluation of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission Levels of Products Produced by Different Kinds of Equipment Based on Green Development Concept

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Analysis and Evaluation Framework Model of Production Process Serving the Concept of Green Development

#### 2.1. The Relationship between GDC and Product Production Process

#### 2.2. A Framework Model for Objective Analysis and Evaluation of Product Manufacturing Process Serving GDC

## 3. Unified Calculation Model of Green Development Objective in Different Equipment Production Process

#### 3.1. Energy Objective

- (1)
- Establish the cutting energy consumption model.$$E=SEC\cdot V+{P}_{airi}\cdot \mathrm{\Delta}{t}_{airi}{}_{}$$A general model of cutting energy consumption for each feed:$${E}_{i}=SE{C}_{i}\cdot {V}_{i}+{P}_{airi}\cdot \mathrm{\Delta}{t}_{airi}$$$$SEC=\frac{{P}_{normal}}{MRR}={k}_{1}\frac{n}{MRR}+{k}_{2}MR{R}^{{k}_{3}}+{k}_{4}\frac{1}{MRR}$$$${P}_{air}={P}_{standby}+{P}_{fluid}+{k}_{1}n+a+{k}_{5}f+b$$
- (2)
- Calculate the total cutting energy consumption.$${E}_{ZO}={\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{\mathrm{m}}{E}_{i}}={\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{m}\left(SE{C}_{i}\cdot {V}_{i}+{P}_{airi}\cdot \mathrm{\Delta}{t}_{airi}\right)}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}={\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{m}\left[\left({k}_{1}\frac{{n}_{1}}{MR{R}_{i}}+{k}_{4}\frac{1}{MR{R}_{i}}+{k}_{2}MR{R}_{i}^{{k}_{3}}\right)\cdot {V}_{i}+\left({k}_{1}{n}_{1}+{k}_{5}{f}_{i}+c\right)\cdot \mathrm{\Delta}{t}_{airi}\right]}$$
- (3)
- Establish a function of time for the part machining process.$${t}_{w}=\frac{\pi \mathrm{dV}}{1000{V}_{\mathrm{c}}{f}_{t}Z{a}_{p}{a}_{e}}+\frac{{t}_{ct}\pi dV{V}_{c}^{x-1}{a}_{p}^{y-1}{f}_{t}^{u-1}{a}_{e}^{w-1}{Z}^{q-1}}{1000{C}_{T}}+{t}_{ot}$$In the formula, ${t}_{w}$ is the function of time for the part machining process; $\mathrm{d}$ is the knife diameter; $Z$ is the number of teeth; ${t}_{ct}$ is the time taken to change the knife at once; ${C}_{T}$ is the coefficient, related to the workpiece material, cutting conditions, and the tool itself; $x,y,u,w,q$ are the index, which represents the influence of each milling amount on tool durability; ${t}_{ot}$ is the auxiliary time outside of the knife change process; ${V}_{\mathrm{c}}$ is cutting speed; ${f}_{t}$ is cutting speed; ${a}_{p}$ is the axial cutting depth; and ${a}_{e}$ is the radial cutting depth.
- (4)
- Normalize the time function and total energy consumption.The process of normalized processing time function and total energy consumption is as follows:$${t}_{w}^{\ast}=\frac{{t}_{w}({V}_{\mathrm{c}},{f}_{t},{a}_{p},{a}_{e})-{t}_{w\mathrm{min}}}{{t}_{w\mathrm{max}}-{t}_{w\mathrm{min}}}$$In the formula, ${t}_{w}^{\ast}$ is the function of time for the normalized part machining process; and ${t}_{w\mathrm{max}}$ and ${t}_{w\mathrm{min}}$ are the minimum and maximum values optimized only for processing time, respectively.$${E}_{ZO}^{\ast}=\frac{{E}_{ZO}({V}_{\mathrm{c}},{f}_{t},{a}_{p},{a}_{e})-{E}_{ZO\mathrm{min}}}{{E}_{ZO\mathrm{max}}-{E}_{ZO\mathrm{min}}}$$In the formula, ${E}_{ZO}^{\ast}$ is the total cutting energy consumption after normalization treatment; ${E}_{ZO\mathrm{max}}$ and ${E}_{ZO\mathrm{min}}$ are the minimum and maximum optimization values of processing energy consumption.
- (5)
- Calculate the expression of energy consumption optimal objective.The processing parameter optimization method based on the general cutting energy consumption model is as follows:$$\mathrm{min}F({V}_{\mathrm{c}},{f}_{t},{a}_{p},{a}_{e})=\mathrm{min}({w}_{1}{t}_{w}^{\ast}+{w}_{2}{E}_{ZO}^{\ast})\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}=\mathrm{min}({w}_{1}\frac{{t}_{w}({V}_{\mathrm{c}},{f}_{t},{a}_{p},{a}_{e})-{t}_{w\mathrm{min}}}{{t}_{w\mathrm{max}}-{t}_{w\mathrm{min}}}+{w}_{2}\frac{{E}_{ZO}({V}_{\mathrm{c}},{f}_{t},{a}_{p},{a}_{e})-{E}_{ZO\mathrm{min}}}{{E}_{ZO\mathrm{max}}-{E}_{ZO\mathrm{min}}})$$In the formula, ${w}_{1}$ and ${w}_{2}$ are the weight coefficients; ${w}_{1}+{w}_{2}=1$.

#### 3.2. Carbon Emission Objective

- (1)
- The electric energy carbon emission.In the process of CNC machining, a large amount of electric energy needs to be consumed. The carbon emitted due to electrical energy consumption ${C}_{e}$ during the NC machining process is calculated as follows:$${C}_{e}={F}_{e}{E}_{ZO}$$In the formula, ${F}_{e}$ represents the carbon emission factor of the electrical energy (KGCO
_{2}/kWh)); ${E}_{ZO}$ represents the electrical energy consumption of the process, which is shown in Equation (5); and ${F}_{e}$ is closely related to the composition of the power grid. Different power grids have different carbon emission factors. According to [46], 0.6747 is used as the carbon emission factor. - (2)
- Carbon emissions from tool use.In the process of machining, the carbon emission caused directly by the cutting tool is small, and is mainly due to the combination of the cutting tool preparation process and the use of the cutting tool. Therefore, the carbon emission of the tool is calculated by the time-standard conversion to the process distribution method in the tool life cycle. The specific calculation method is as follows:$${C}_{t}=\frac{{t}_{m}}{{T}_{t}}{F}_{t}{W}_{t}$$
_{2}/kg.Tool life ${T}_{t}$ refers to the cutting time experienced by a new tool until scrapped, which may include multiple regrinding (regrinding times expressed by N) time; thus, tool life is equal to the product of tool life $T$ and (N + 1),$${T}_{t}=(N+1)T$$ - (3)
- Cutting fluid uses carbon emissions.The calculation of the carbon emissions of cutting fluid mainly takes into account the water-based cutting fluid in the NC machining process. Ascertaining carbon emission of cutting fluid mainly considers the carbon emission of pure mineral oil preparation ${C}_{o}$ and the carbon emission of cutting fluid disposal ${C}_{w}$. The calculation of carbon emissions from cutting fluids is converted to the machining process by time standards during its replacement cycle. The carbon emissions from the beechwood cutting fluid are calculated as follows:$${C}_{c}=\frac{{T}_{p}}{{T}_{c}}({C}_{o}+{C}_{w})$$$${C}_{o}={F}_{o}({C}_{C}+{A}_{C})$$$${C}_{w}={F}_{w}[({C}_{C}+{A}_{C})/\delta ]$$In the formula, ${F}_{o}$ is the pure mineral oil emission factor; ${F}_{w}$ is the waste cutting fluid treatment carbon emission factor; ${C}_{C}$ is the initial cutting oil consumption, and ${A}_{C}$ is the additional cutting oil consumption. $\delta $ is cutting fluid concentration; ${T}_{c}$ is the cutting fluid replacement cycle, and ${T}_{p}$ is processing time.The carbon emission factor for cutting fluid is divided into two parts, including the preparation of pure mineral oil required for the configuration of cutting fluids ${F}_{o}$ and the carbon emission factor of waste cutting fluid treatment ${F}_{w}$ The formula for calculating l ${F}_{o}$ is as follows:$${F}_{o}={E}_{Eo}{E}_{Co}\times \frac{44}{12}$$In the formula, ${E}_{Eo}$ is the intrinsic energy of the mineral oil (GJ/l), and ${E}_{Co}$ is the default carbon content of the mineral oil (kgc/GJ). According to [47], ${F}_{o}$ can be calculated as the value 2.85 kgCO
_{2}/L. The carbon emission factor of waste cutting fluid treatment ${F}_{w}$ is 0.2 kgCO_{2}/L.

#### 3.3. Constrains

- (1)
- Cutting depth constraint.The cutting depth $a$ must between the maximum cutting depth ${a}_{\mathrm{max}}$ and the minimum cutting depth ${a}_{\mathrm{min}}$.$${a}_{\mathrm{min}}\le a\le {a}_{\mathrm{max}}$$
- (2)
- Feed constraint.The feed must be between the minimum ${f}_{\mathrm{min}}$ and maximum feed ${f}_{\mathrm{max}}$.$${f}_{\mathrm{min}}\le f\le {f}_{\mathrm{max}}$$
- (3)
- Cutting speed constraint.$$\frac{\pi {d}_{0}{n}_{\mathrm{min}}}{1000}\le v\le \frac{\pi {d}_{0}{n}_{\mathrm{max}}}{1000}$$
- (4)
- Surface roughness constraint.The surface roughness $R$ after machining should be less than the maximum allowable surface roughness ${R}_{\mathrm{max}}$.$$R\le {R}_{\mathrm{max}}$$

## 4. Case Study

#### 4.1. Basic Situation Analysis of Existing Equipment Types

#### 4.2. Optimization Algorithm Selection and Parameter Setting

#### 4.3. Optimization Results

#### 4.4. Analysis of Optimization Results and Discussion

#### 4.4.1. Comparison of Different Equipment: Optimization Results

#### 4.4.2. Comparative Benefits between the Proposed Method and Literature

#### 4.4.3. Practical Implications and Future Steps

## 5. Conclusions

- Based on the concept of green development, a set of methods for analyzing and evaluating energy consumption and carbon emissions in the product manufacturing process was established. This paper analyzes the influence of different factors on the green development level of a manufacturing process, and establishes the logical relationship between the selection of equipment and other factors.
- This paper established a unified calculation model of the energy consumption and carbon emission level of products made using different kinds of equipment. The model considers the characteristics of the operation of each tool and sets the specific parameters respectively.
- The grey wolf algorithm was used to optimize the model for calculating the energy consumption and carbon emissions of various equipment.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 3.**Analysis and evaluation framework model of the product manufacturing process serving the concept of green development.

v_{min} (m/min) | n_{max} (m/min) | f_{min}(mm/r) | f_{max}(mm/r) | a_{min} (mm) | a_{max} (mm) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

45 | 120 | 0.15 | 0.75 | 2.5 | 7.6 |

${\mathit{k}}_{\mathit{\gamma}}$ | ${\mathit{k}}_{\mathit{\gamma}}^{\mathbf{,}}$ | ${\mathit{\lambda}}_{\mathit{s}}$ | ${\mathit{r}}_{\mathit{\epsilon}}$ |

75° | 4° | −5° | 1 mm |

${\mathit{K}}_{\mathit{N}\mathit{F}\mathit{C}}$ | ${\mathit{K}}_{\mathit{N}\mathit{F}\mathit{C}}$ | ${\mathit{K}}_{{\mathit{\gamma}}_{\mathbf{0}}}{}_{\mathit{F}\mathit{C}}$ | ${\mathit{K}}_{{\mathit{\lambda}}_{\mathit{c}}}{}_{\mathit{F}\mathit{C}}$ | ${\mathit{C}}_{\mathit{F}\mathit{C}}$ | ${\mathit{C}}_{\mathit{F}\mathit{C}}$ | $\mathit{y}{\mathit{F}}_{\mathit{C}}$ | ${\mathit{n}}_{{\mathit{F}}_{\mathit{c}}}$ | $\raisebox{1ex}{$\mathbf{1}$}\!\left/ \!\raisebox{-1ex}{$\mathit{\alpha}$}\right.$ | $\raisebox{1ex}{$\mathbf{1}$}\!\left/ \!\raisebox{-1ex}{$\mathit{\beta}$}\right.$ |

(1.02, 3) | 0.92 | 1 | 1 | 2795 | 1 | 0.75 | (−0.1, 5) | 2.13 | 1 |

n (r·min^{−1}) | p_{max} (kW) | f_{z} (mm·r^{−1}) | η | K_{m} | M_{max} (N·m) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

50~3500 | 2 | 0.02~5 | 0.8 | 0.2 | 20 |

Types of Knives | Knife Diameter(mm) | Number of Knife Teeth | Corner Radius r_{ε}(/mm) |
---|---|---|---|

YT15 hard metal | 125 | 4 | 3 |

Project | Unit | Number |
---|---|---|

X axis trip | mm | 810 |

Y axis trip | mm | 510 |

Z axis trip | mm | 560 |

Workbench area | mm | 1000 × 510 |

Main shaft speed | rpm | 8000 |

Spindle motor specifications | kw | 15/10 |

X/Y/Z axis fast speed | m/min | 15/15/12 |

Maximum cutting speed | mm/min | 7000 |

Machine tool power | kVA | 20 |

System | FUNAC | series |

Essential Parameter | Internal Circle Diameter | Thickness | Aperture | Horn R | Relief Angle |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Number | 3.97 | 1.59 | 2.3 | <0.2 | 5° |

Equipment | Energy Consumption | Carbon Emissions |
---|---|---|

Lathe | 69.73 | 8.97 |

Milling machine | 72.46 | 10.61 |

Drilling machine | 157. 89 | 11.58 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Xiao, Y.; Zhao, R.; Yan, W.; Zhu, X.
Analysis and Evaluation of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission Levels of Products Produced by Different Kinds of Equipment Based on Green Development Concept. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 7631.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137631

**AMA Style**

Xiao Y, Zhao R, Yan W, Zhu X.
Analysis and Evaluation of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission Levels of Products Produced by Different Kinds of Equipment Based on Green Development Concept. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(13):7631.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137631

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Xiao, Yongmao, Renqing Zhao, Wei Yan, and Xiaoyong Zhu.
2022. "Analysis and Evaluation of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission Levels of Products Produced by Different Kinds of Equipment Based on Green Development Concept" *Sustainability* 14, no. 13: 7631.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137631