# Timing Decision for Active Remanufacturing Based on 3E Analysis of Product Life Cycle

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methodology

#### 2.1. 3E Analysis of Product Life Cycle

#### 2.1.1. LCA and LCC Methods

#### 2.1.2. Energy Analysis

- (1)
- Manufacturing stage

- (2)
- Service stage

- (3)
- Remanufacturing stage

#### 2.1.3. Economic Analysis

- (1)
- Manufacturing stage

- (2)
- Service stage

- (3)
- Remanufacturing stage

#### 2.1.4. Environmental Analysis

- (1)
- Manufacturing stage

- (2)
- Service stage

- (3)
- Remanufacturing stage

#### 2.2. Modeling and Solving the Multi-Objective Optimization Problem

#### 2.2.1. Normalization of Multiple Objective Functions

#### 2.2.2. Objective Function of Optimization

#### 2.2.3. Model Solving with Particle Swarm Optimization

## 3. Case Study

#### 3.1. Annual Average Energy Consumption

- (1)
- Manufacturing stage

- (2)
- Service stage

- (3)
- Remanufacturing stage

#### 3.2. Annual Average Cost

- (1)
- Manufacturing stage

- (2)
- Service stage

- (3)
- Remanufacturing stage

#### 3.3. Annual Average Environmental Emissions

- (1)
- Manufacturing stage

- (2)
- Service stage

- (3)
- Remanufacturing stage

#### 3.4. Multi-Objective Optimization Solution

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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List Substances | Steel | Cast Iron | Aluminum | Alloy |
---|---|---|---|---|

Coal | 5.19 | 5.86 | 66.06 | 5.71 |

Crude | 0.40 | 0.37 | 3.99 | 0.51 |

Natural gas | 0.19 | 0.02 | 2.51 | 1.16 |

Manufacturing Method of Core | Casting | Forging |
---|---|---|

Energy consumption | 400 | 71.38 |

**Table 3.**Remanufacturing energy-consumption list of key engine parts, $\mathrm{kW}\cdot \mathrm{h}$.

Process | Clean | Detection | Subsequent Processing |
---|---|---|---|

Crankshaft | 1.61 | 0.89 | 6.62 |

Connecting rod | 0.48 | 2.8 | 0.11 |

Cylinder block | 3.61 | 0.7 | 17.69 |

Cylinder head | 3.09 | 13.44 | 0.21 |

Pollutants | $\mathit{C}{\mathit{O}}_{2}$ | $\mathit{C}\mathit{O}$ | $\mathit{C}{\mathit{H}}_{4}$ | $\mathit{S}{\mathit{O}}_{2}$ | $\mathit{N}{\mathit{O}}_{\mathit{x}}$ |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Value | 3.19 × 10^{3} | 11.00 | 5.91 × 10^{−2} | 1.00 × 10^{−1} | 9.34 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Gong, Q.; Xiong, Y.; Jiang, Z.; Yang, J.; Chen, C.
Timing Decision for Active Remanufacturing Based on 3E Analysis of Product Life Cycle. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 8749.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148749

**AMA Style**

Gong Q, Xiong Y, Jiang Z, Yang J, Chen C.
Timing Decision for Active Remanufacturing Based on 3E Analysis of Product Life Cycle. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(14):8749.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148749

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Gong, Qingshan, Yurong Xiong, Zhigang Jiang, Jinghong Yang, and Chen Chen.
2022. "Timing Decision for Active Remanufacturing Based on 3E Analysis of Product Life Cycle" *Sustainability* 14, no. 14: 8749.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148749