# Improvement of Road Safety through Appropriate Cargo Securing Using Outliers

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

^{−1}with a speed limiter), which also decreases the number of shocks affecting the transport.

_{sx}≥ F

_{x}

_{sy}≥ F

_{y}

_{sz}≥ F

_{z}

_{sx}, F

_{sy}, F

_{sz}are the amounts of securing forces on the individual axes (x—longitudinal, y—transverse, and z—vertical toward the motion of the vehicle), and F

_{x}, F

_{y}, F

_{z}are the amounts of inertial forces affecting the cargo during transport. According to regulation EN 12195-1:2010, value F

_{z}is not included and is considered the least problematic given the type of securing system used (Top-Over Lashing) and the effect of the weight force [6].

_{z}enters the calculation of inertial forces (required securing forces) on axes x and y; these are the relationships for the calculation according to regulation EN 12195-1:2010 [7]:

_{x}is the longitudinal inertia force to the vehicle movement, F

_{y}is the transverse, and c

_{x}, c

_{y}, c

_{z}are the acceleration coefficients in the individual axes. µ is the friction coefficient, m is the mass of the cargo, g is the gravity acceleration, f

_{s}is the coefficient of safety for frictional lashing, n is the required number of lashing straps, and α is the angle between the lashing strap and the deck of the vehicle.

_{x}, c

_{y}, c

_{z}) = (0.8; 0.6; 1.0)

_{z}= 2.0. Analogically, value c

_{z}= 3.0 was used for double exceeding.

## 2. Literature Review

## 3. Materials and Methods

#### 3.1. Transport Experiment–Measured Data

#### 3.2. Methods

**b**, ${n}_{2}$ is the amount of measurements greater than

**b**, and $n={n}_{1}+{n}_{2}$ is the total number of measurements. The choice of

**b**as the delimiting constant will be later clarified in Equation (10).

#### 3.3. Hypotheses

_{1}, H

_{2}, H

_{3}) were established to evaluate the measured data, along with their alternative hypotheses that correspond to the invalidity of the respective null hypotheses.

**H**

_{1}:**H**

_{2}:**H**

_{3}:## 4. Results

^{−1}. The differences in the average speeds between the individual segments were insignificant; the divergence from the average velocity in all segments was less than 1%. The average speed corresponds to the implemented speed limiter set to 85 km∙h

^{−1}.

#### 4.1. Results H_{1}

#### 4.2. Results H_{2}

**b**for the evaluation of an outlier was selected using the upper quartile ${x}_{0.75}$ and lower quartile ${x}_{0.25}$ along with the interquartile range $\left(IQR={x}_{0.75}-{x}_{0.25}\right)$, according to the formula:

_{2}was verified for the individual rides, axes, and the individual measuring devices separately. Subsequently, relative frequencies of exceeding the limits were established for the individual axes and individual locations of the measuring devices, and the statistical test of the null hypothesis was carried out, where the probability of exceeding the limit is equal to a maximum of 0.20 (respectively 20%) as opposed to the alternative hypothesis that the probability is greater than 0.20 (respectively 20%).

_{2}indicates the percentage of outliers. It is clearly noticeable from the table, that the highest percentage of outliers, greater than 2%, was in the Left-Front axis y 2855% (expected value of contaminated density is 0.901778), then in Left-Rear, axis z 2670% (expected value of contaminated density is 2.449605) and finally in Right-Rear, axis z 2.334% (expected value of contaminated density is 2.926286). The table also noticeably shows the expected value of the contaminated distribution in comparison with the expected value of the uncontaminated data, which correspond to the stationary part of the drive.

#### 4.3. Results H_{3}

_{2}. The null hypothesis that the probability of exceeding the limit twofold is equal at maximum 0.01 (respectively 1%) was tested against the alternative hypothesis that the probability of exceeding is greater than this value. On the basis of the statistical test results, it may be concluded that H

_{3}was not rejected by any of the tests on the selected 5% level of significance. Thus, the double values of the limits are exceeded only sporadically, particularly on the y axis. Of the total number of measurements (85,356 acceleration coefficient values), there was only one instance of exceeding the limit twofold in axis x, 30 instances in case of axis y, and at the z axis, the limit was exceeded in four cases.

## 5. Conclusions

_{1}). Even though only rides in one direction were evaluated, the individual rides were subject to divergences in traffic, temperature change (approximately by 6 °C) etc. The analysis of the two key hypotheses (H

_{2}and H

_{3}) was carried out per the individual rides, individual axes, and individual locations of the measuring devices.

_{2}), a statistically significant exceeding of the regulatory-stipulated values was shown, particularly in axes z and y, confirming previous results of experiments (for example [21,22]). Thus, the z axis measurement results are also essential for the cargo-securing system selection, as well as the overall approach to cargo securing. The acceleration coefficient values results of axis z show that the limit was exceeded only on three wheels. The accelerometer located in the Left-Rear showed a lesser number of exceeding instances in comparison with the other measuring devices. Upon investigation of the cause, it was found that the tire was in a different technical condition in comparison with others. Verifying whether this was the only cause, as well as the reason for a ‘positive’ divergence of shocks generated in one wheel, will be the subject of further research.

_{3}) was not rejected; the double limits were exceeded only sporadically. The highest occurrence of twofold limit exceeding was found on axis y, and this only in 30 cases from the total number of measurements, which may be considered statistically insignificant. Although a twofold exceeding of the regulatory-stipulated limit may be considered dangerous, in such a small amount, these risks are negligible, including the impact on the lifespan of the individual elements of the securing system, particularly on tying straps.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- Ministry of Transport of the Czech Republic. Transport Yearbook. 2018. Available online: https://www.sydos.cz/cs/rocenka-2018/rocenka/htm_cz/cz18_621000.html (accessed on 20 October 2020).
- Calvo-Poyo, F.; Navarro-Moreno, J.; de Oña, J. Road Investment and Traffic Safety: An International Study. Sustainability
**2020**, 12, 6332. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Police of the Czech Republic. Accident Statistics 2018. Available online: https://www.policie.cz/clanek/statistika-nehodovosti-900835.aspx?q=Y2hudW09Mg%3d%3d (accessed on 22 October 2020).
- European Commision—Directorate-General for Energy and Transport. European Best Practice Guidelines on Cargo Securing for Road Transport. Available online: www.uirr.com/fr/component/downloads/downloads/302.html (accessed on 22 October 2020).
- Vlkovský, M. A Comparison of Cargo Securing on Laden/Unladen Container Trucks. Int. J. Log. Syst. Manag.
**2021**, 67, 1015–1023. [Google Scholar] - Vlkovsky, M.; Binar, T.; Svarc, J.; Nemec, P.; Bucsuhazy, K. Impact of Shocks on Cargo Securing during the Road Transport. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering—Proceedings of the 4th World Multidisciplinary Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Planning Symposium; IOP Publishing Ltd: Prague, Czech Republic, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- EN 12195-1. Load Restraining on Road Vehicles—Safety—Part 1: Calculation of Securing Forces; European Committee for Standardization: Brussel, Belgium, 2010.
- Nieoczym, A.; Caban, J.; Vrábel, J. The Problem of Proper Cargo Securing in Road Transport—Case Study. Transport Research Procedia. In Proceedings of the 13th International Scientific Conference on Sustainable, Modern and Safe Transport, Nový Smokovec, Slovakia, 29–31 May 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Grzesica, D. Measurement and Analysis of Truck Vibrations during Off-Road Transportation. In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Vibration Engineering and Technology of Machinery, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 September 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Cieśla, M.; Hat-Garncarz, G. The Problem of Proper Cargo Securing in Road Transport—Case Study. Transp. Prob.
**2013**, 8, 27–33. [Google Scholar] - EN 12640 (F draft). Securing of Cargo on Road Vehicles—Lashing Points on Commercial Vehicles for Goods Transportation—Minimum Requirements and Testing; European Committee for Standardization: Brussel, Belgium, 2019.
- United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. IMO/ILO/UNECE Code of Practice for Packing of Cargo Transport Units (CTU Code). Available online: https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2014/wp24/CTU_Code_January_2014.pdf (accessed on 28 October 2020).
- VDI 2700. Securing of Loads on Road Vehicles—Securing of Skips on Skip Loader Vehicles and their Trailers; Verlag: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Lerher, T. Cargo Securing in Road Transport Using Restraining Method with Top-Over Lashing; Nova Science Publishers: New York, NY, USA, 2015; ISBN 978-1-61122-002-5. [Google Scholar]
- Grossmann, G.; Kassmann, M. Transportsichere Verpackung und Ladungssicherung, 3rd ed.; Expert Verlag: Renningen, Germany, 2018; ISBN 978-3-8169-3334-2. [Google Scholar]
- Galor, W.; Galor, A.; Jóźwiak, Z.; Wiśnicki, B.; Woś, K.; Galor, P. Carriage and Securing of Oversize Cargo in Transport; Akademia Morska: Szczecin, Poland, 2011; ISBN 978-83-899901-59-0. [Google Scholar]
- Jagelčák, J. Equation of the standard EN 12195-1 Stipulates Unreasonable Demands for Cargo Securing. Communications
**2007**, 9, 30–33. [Google Scholar] - Jagelčák, J.; Vrábel, J.; Nieuwesteeg, M. Draft for Revision of the Standards EN 12640 and EN 12641 Regarding the Securing of Cargo on Road Means of Transport. LOGI Sci. J. Transp. Log.
**2017**, 8, 41–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version] - Bańka, M.; Droździel, P.; Nieoczym, A. Lashing Methods—Mathematical Basis of the Process of Selecting the Number of Lashings. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Scientific Conference on Transport Means, Palanga, Lithuania, 2–4 October 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Vlkovský, M.; Veselík, P. Cargo Securing—Comparison of Different Quality Roads. Acta Univ. Agri. Silvi. Mendel. Brunensis
**2019**, 67, 1015–1023. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version] - Vlkovský, M.; Koziol, P.; Grzesica, D. Wavelet Based Analysis of Truck Vibrations during Off-road Transportation. In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Vibration Engineering and Technology of Machinery, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 September 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Vlkovský, M.; Šmerek, M.; Michálek, J. Cargo Securing during Transport Depending on the Type of a Road. In Proceedings of the 2nd World Multidisciplinary Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Planning Symposium, Prague, Czech Republic, 12–16 June 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Vlkovský, M.; Veselík, P.; Grzesica, D. Cargo Securing and Its Economic Consequences. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Scientific Conference on Transport Means—Part I, Kaunas, Lithuania, 3–5 October 2018. [Google Scholar]
- De Oliveira, L.P.; Alonso, F.J.; da Silva, M.A.V.; de Gomes Garcia, B.T.; Lopes, D.M.M. Analysis of the Influence of Training and Feedback Based on Event Data Recorder Information to Improve Safety, Operational and Economic Performance of Road Freight Transport in Brazil. Sustainability
**2020**, 12, 8139. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Demasi, F.; Loprencipe, G.; Moretti, L. Road Safety Analysis of Urban Roads: Case Study of an Italian Municipality. Safety
**2018**, 4, 58. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version] - Tsoutsi, V.; Dikeos, D.; Basta, M.; Papadakaki, M. Driving Behaviour in Depression: Findings from a Driving Simulator Study. Safety
**2019**, 5, 70. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version] - Neumann, V. Possibilities of Vehicle Movement Evaluation. In Proceedings of the 19th International Scientific Conference on Transport Means, Kaunas, Lithuania, 22–23 October 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Zong, C.Q.; Zhang, H.W.; Huang, C.Z.; Dong, J.S. Research on the Influence of Cargo Securing Force with Typical Road Alignments and Vehicle Working Conditions. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Transportation Information and Safety, Banff, AB, Canada, 8–10 August 2017. [Google Scholar]
- García, L.O.; Wilson, F.R.; Innes, J.D. Heavy Track Dynamic Rollover—Effect of Load Distribution, Cargo Type, and Road Design Characteristics. Transp. Res Rec.
**2003**, 1851, 25–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Breunig, M.M.; Kriegel, H.P.; Ng, R.T.; Sander, J. LOF: Identifying density-based local outliers. ACM Sigmoid Record
**2000**, 29, 93–104. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Adam, M.B.; Babura, B.I.; Gopal, K. Range-Box Plotting Relating to Discrete Distribution. Matematika
**2018**, 2, 187–204. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Vaghefi, M.; Mahmoodi, K.; Akbari, M. Detection of Outlier in 3D Flow Velocity Collection in an Open-Channel Bend Using Various Data Mining Techniques. Iran J. Sci. Technol. Trans. Civ. Eng.
**2019**, 43, 197–214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Mahmoodi, K.; Ghassemi, H. Outlier Detection in Ocean Wave Measurements by Using Unsupervised Data Mining Methods. Polish Maritime Res.
**2018**, 1, 44–50. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version] - Zmuk, B. Speeding Problem Detection in Business Surveys: Benefits of Statistical Outlier Detection Methods. Croatian Oper. Res. Rev.
**2017**, 8, 33–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Fu, W.J.; Zhao, K.L.; Zhang, C.S.; Wu, J.S.; Tunney, H. Outlier identification of soil phosphorus and its implication for spatial structure modeling. Precis. Agric.
**2016**, 17, 121–135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Barbato, G.; Barini, E.M.; Genta, G.; Levi, R. Robust methods and conditional expectations for vehicular traffic count analysis. Eur. Trans. Res. Rev.
**2020**, 12, 10. [Google Scholar] - Bakowski, A.; Radziszewski, L.; Skrobacki, Z. Analysis of Urban Traffic for Various Sets of Vehicles. In Proceedings of the 3rd World Multidisciplinary Civil Engineering, Architecture, Urban Planning Symposium, Prague, Czech Republic, 18–22 June 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Buendia, R.; Forcolin, F.; Karlsson, J.; Sjöqvist, B.J.; Anund, A.; Candefjord, S. Deriving Heart Rate Variability Indices from Cardiac Monitoring—An Indicator of Driver Sleepiness. Traf. Injury Prev.
**2019**, 20, 249–254. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version] - Forcolin, F.; Buendia, R.; Candefjord, S.; Karlsson, J.; Sjöqvist, B.A.; Anund, A. Comparison of Outlier Heartbeat Identification and Spectral Transformation Strategies for Deriving Heart Rate Variability Indices for Drivers at Different Stages of Sleepiness. Traf. Injury Prev.
**2019**, 19, 112–119. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Staudte, R.G.; Sheather, S.J. Robust Estimation and Testing, 1st ed.; Wiley-Interscience: New York, NY, USA, 1990. [Google Scholar]
- Jurečková, J.; Picek, J.; Schindler, M. Robust Statistical Methods with R; Chapman & Hall/CRC: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Maps.cz. Transport Route. Available online: https://mapy.cz/zakladni?planovani-trasy&x=17.9175146&y=49.6482511&z=12&rc=9oWdWxVBCV9p2IWxVisy&rs=coor&rs=coor&ri=&ri=&mrp=%7B%22c%22%3A111%7D&xc=%5B%5D (accessed on 25 September 2020).
- Hollander, M.; Wolfe, D.A. Nonparametric Statistical Methods; John Wiley & Sons: New York, NY, USA, 1973. [Google Scholar]
- Mises, R. Mathematical Theory of Probability and Statistics; Academic Press: New York, NY, USA, 1964. [Google Scholar]
- Anderson, T.W.; Darling, D.A. A Test of Goodness of Fit. J. Amer. Stat. Assoc.
**1954**, 49, 765–769. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Řehák, D.; Slivkova, S.; Pittner, R.; Dvorak, Z. Integral approach to assessing the criticality of railway infrastructure element. Int. J. Crit. Infra.
**2020**, 16, 107–129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Řehák, D.; Hromada, M.; Novotny, P. European Critical Infrastructure Risk and Safety Management: Directive Implementation in Practice. In Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Loss Prevention and Safety Promotion, Freiburg, Germany, 5–8 June 2016. [Google Scholar]

**Figure 1.**Transport route of the experiment Hranice–Fulnek (Highway D1) [42]

**Figure 2.**Acceleration coefficient box plots for the individual rides for the Right-Front location (the red dashed line signifies the limit value).

**Figure 7.**Mixture densities in axis z, first ride (accelerometer location Left-Front and Left-Rear).

x | y | z | |
---|---|---|---|

max | 1.69 | 1.74 | 4.64 |

min | −1.30 | −1.82 | 1.41 |

Tests | Cases | Significant Cases | |
---|---|---|---|

Axis x-All | 32 | 1 | 0 |

Axis x-Right-Front | 8 | 1 | 0 |

Axis x-Right-Rear | 8 | 0 | 0 |

Axis x-Left-Front | 8 | 0 | 0 |

Axis x-Left-Rear | 8 | 0 | 0 |

Axis y-All | 32 | 20 | 18 |

Axis y-Right-Front | 8 | 8 | 7 |

Axis y-Right-Rear | 8 | 4 | 4 |

Axis y-Left-Front | 8 | 5 | 4 |

Axis y-Left-Rear | 8 | 3 | 3 |

Axis z-All | 32 | 24 | 24 |

Axis z-Right-Front | 8 | 8 | 8 |

Axis z-Right-Rear | 8 | 8 | 8 |

Axis z-Left-Front | 8 | 8 | 8 |

Axis z-Left-Rear | 8 | 0 | 0 |

**Table 3.**Descriptive characteristics of 80% of quantiles (mean—arithmetic mean, SD—standard deviation).

Mean of x_{0.80} | Sd | Mean of Empirical x_{0.80} | Sd | |
---|---|---|---|---|

Axis x-All | 0.62898 | 0.09664 | 0.62938 | 0.09788 |

Axis x-Right-Front | 0.74548 | 0.05544 | 0.74750 | 0.05701 |

Axis x-Right-Rear | 0.51386 | 0.00951 | 0.51375 | 0.01188 |

Axis x-Left-Front | 0.57569 | 0.01948 | 0.57375 | 0.01923 |

Axis x-Left-Rear | 0.74548 | 0.05544 | 0.74750 | 0.05701 |

Axis y-All | 0.61731 | 0.03378 | 0.61844 | 0.03264 |

Axis y-Right-Front | 0.66319 | 0.03231 | 0.66125 | 0.03091 |

Axis y-Right-Rear | 0.59898 | 0.01650 | 0.60125 | 0.01808 |

Axis y-Left-Front | 0.60605 | 0.01267 | 0.60750 | 0.01389 |

Axis y-Left-Rear | 0.66319 | 0.03231 | 0.66125 | 0.03091 |

Axis z-All | 2.21461 | 0.18686 | 2.21406 | 0.18557 |

Axis z-Right-Front | 2.29579 | 0.10898 | 2.29250 | 0.10951 |

Axis z-Right-Rear | 2.34138 | 0.03978 | 2.34000 | 0.04071 |

Axis z-Left-Front | 2.30595 | 0.04865 | 2.30625 | 0.04838 |

Axis z-Left-Rear | 1.91531 | 0.03153 | 1.91750 | 0.03370 |

**Table 4.**Expected values, standard deviations (Sd) and ratio of outliers of the estimated mixture of log-normal distributions.

Expected Value 1 | Sd 1 | Expected Value 2 | Sd 2 | Ratio of Outliers p_{2} | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Axis x-all | 0.56452 | 0.34560 | 0.89463 | 0.54579 | 0.01245 |

Axis x-Right-Front | 0.65251 | 0.40161 | 1.09803 | 0.66673 | 0.00873 |

Axis x-Right-Rear | 0.46645 | 0.28488 | 0.72740 | 0.44543 | 0.01463 |

Axis x-Left-Front | 0.52168 | 0.31864 | 0.82881 | 0.50847 | 0.01744 |

Axis x-Left-Rear | 0.61746 | 0.37727 | 0.92427 | 0.56254 | 0.00900 |

Axis y-all | 0.55355 | 0.33862 | 0.91089 | 0.55815 | 0.02078 |

Axis y-Right-Front | 0.58948 | 0.36125 | 0.95456 | 0.58122 | 0.01745 |

Axis y-Right-Rear | 0.54221 | 0.33119 | 0.89838 | 0.55322 | 0.01955 |

Axis y-Left-Front | 0.54190 | 0.33146 | 0.90178 | 0.55325 | 0.02855 |

Axis y-Left-Rear | 0.54062 | 0.33059 | 0.88886 | 0.54492 | 0.01757 |

Axis z-all | 2.08370 | 1.26715 | 2.64994 | 1.61213 | 0.01782 |

Axis z-Right-Front | 2.13525 | 1.30027 | 2.56050 | 1.55425 | 0.00647 |

Axis z-Right-Rear | 2.20397 | 1.33997 | 2.92629 | 1.78253 | 0.02334 |

Axis z-Left-Front | 2.19647 | 1.33440 | 2.66335 | 1.61614 | 0.01478 |

Axis z-Left-Rear | 1.79912 | 1.09395 | 2.44961 | 1.49559 | 0.02670 |

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. |

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Vlkovský, M.; Neubauer, J.; Malíšek, J.; Michálek, J.
Improvement of Road Safety through Appropriate Cargo Securing Using Outliers. *Sustainability* **2021**, *13*, 2688.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052688

**AMA Style**

Vlkovský M, Neubauer J, Malíšek J, Michálek J.
Improvement of Road Safety through Appropriate Cargo Securing Using Outliers. *Sustainability*. 2021; 13(5):2688.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052688

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Vlkovský, Martin, Jiří Neubauer, Jiří Malíšek, and Jaroslav Michálek.
2021. "Improvement of Road Safety through Appropriate Cargo Securing Using Outliers" *Sustainability* 13, no. 5: 2688.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052688