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Review

Role of Microalgae in Global CO2 Sequestration: Physiological Mechanism, Recent Development, Challenges, and Future Prospective

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi 110016, India
2
Department of Biophysics, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 78371 Olomouc, Czech Republic
3
Departamento de Pesca e Aquicultura, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife 52171-900, Brazil
4
Institute for Water and Wastewater Technologies, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4001, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Talal Yusaf
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13061; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313061
Received: 28 October 2021 / Revised: 17 November 2021 / Accepted: 22 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Recycling)
The rising concentration of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has severely affected our planet’s homeostasis. Efforts are being made worldwide to curb carbon dioxide emissions, but there is still no strategy or technology available to date that is widely accepted. Two basic strategies are employed for reducing CO2 emissions, viz. (i) a decrease in fossil fuel use, and increased use of renewable energy sources; and (ii) carbon sequestration by various biological, chemical, or physical methods. This review has explored microalgae’s role in carbon sequestration, the physiological apparatus, with special emphasis on the carbon concentration mechanism (CCM). A CCM is a specialized mechanism of microalgae. In this process, a sub-cellular organelle known as pyrenoid, containing a high concentration of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco), helps in the fixation of CO2. One type of carbon concentration mechanism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the association of pyrenoid tubules with thylakoids membrane is represented through a typical graphical model. Various environmental factors influencing carbon sequestration in microalgae and associated techno-economic challenges are analyzed critically. View Full-Text
Keywords: microalgae; pyrenoid; carbon sequestration; carbon emissions; algae microalgae; pyrenoid; carbon sequestration; carbon emissions; algae
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MDPI and ACS Style

Prasad, R.; Gupta, S.K.; Shabnam, N.; Oliveira, C.Y.B.; Nema, A.K.; Ansari, F.A.; Bux, F. Role of Microalgae in Global CO2 Sequestration: Physiological Mechanism, Recent Development, Challenges, and Future Prospective. Sustainability 2021, 13, 13061. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313061

AMA Style

Prasad R, Gupta SK, Shabnam N, Oliveira CYB, Nema AK, Ansari FA, Bux F. Role of Microalgae in Global CO2 Sequestration: Physiological Mechanism, Recent Development, Challenges, and Future Prospective. Sustainability. 2021; 13(23):13061. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313061

Chicago/Turabian Style

Prasad, Ravindra, Sanjay K. Gupta, Nisha Shabnam, Carlos Y.B. Oliveira, Arvind K. Nema, Faiz A. Ansari, and Faizal Bux. 2021. "Role of Microalgae in Global CO2 Sequestration: Physiological Mechanism, Recent Development, Challenges, and Future Prospective" Sustainability 13, no. 23: 13061. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313061

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