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Article

Flame Retardance and Char Analysis of an Eco-Friendly Polyurethane Hyperbranched Hybrid Using the Sol–Gel Method

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung City 41170, Taiwan
2
General Education Center, Far East University, Tainan City 74448, Taiwan
3
Green Flame Retardant Material Research Laboratory, Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hung-Kuang University, Taichung City 43302, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020486
Received: 18 December 2020 / Revised: 27 December 2020 / Accepted: 30 December 2020 / Published: 6 January 2021
This study used the sol–gel method to synthesize a non-halogenated, hyperbranched flame retardant containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon (HBNPSi), which was then added to a polyurethane (PU) matrix to form an organic–inorganic hybrid material. Using 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of P- and Si-mapping, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, this study determined the organic and inorganic dispersity, morphology, and flame retardance mechanism of the hybrid material. The condensation density of the hybrid material PU/HBNPSi was found to be 74.4%. High condensation density indicates a dense network structure of the material. The P- and Si-mapping showed that adding inorganic additives in quantities of either 20% or 40% results in homogeneous dispersion of the inorganic fillers in the polymer matrix without agglomeration, indicating that the organic and inorganic phases had excellent compatibility. In the burning test, adding HBNPSi to PU made the material pass the UL-94 test at the V2 level, unlike the pristine PU, which did not meet the standard. The results demonstrate that after non-halogenated flame retardant was added to PU, the material’s flammability and dripping were lower, thereby proving that flame retardants containing elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon exert an excellent flame-retardant synergistic effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: flame retardant; organic–inorganic hybrid; polyurethane; sol–gel method; synergistic effect flame retardant; organic–inorganic hybrid; polyurethane; sol–gel method; synergistic effect
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shen, M.-Y.; Kuan, C.-F.; Kuan, H.-C.; Ke, C.-Y.; Chiang, C.-L. Flame Retardance and Char Analysis of an Eco-Friendly Polyurethane Hyperbranched Hybrid Using the Sol–Gel Method. Sustainability 2021, 13, 486. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020486

AMA Style

Shen M-Y, Kuan C-F, Kuan H-C, Ke C-Y, Chiang C-L. Flame Retardance and Char Analysis of an Eco-Friendly Polyurethane Hyperbranched Hybrid Using the Sol–Gel Method. Sustainability. 2021; 13(2):486. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020486

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shen, Ming-Yuan, Chen-Feng Kuan, Hsu-Chiang Kuan, Cing-Yu Ke, and Chin-Lung Chiang. 2021. "Flame Retardance and Char Analysis of an Eco-Friendly Polyurethane Hyperbranched Hybrid Using the Sol–Gel Method" Sustainability 13, no. 2: 486. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020486

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