2. Literature Review
“the lack of a precise definition of the term ‘sustainable development’ is not all bad. It has allowed a considerable consensus to evolve in support of the idea that it is both morally and economically wrong to treat the world as a business in liquidation”.
“the political precept of neoliberalism is that, while all essential collective decisions need to include the constitutional State, State intervention in the social and economic life should generally be minimal. Rather, the role of the State should be primarily to guarantee and ensure freedom of individual economic agents”. Furthermore, in  (p. 2), neo-liberal urbanism is defined as “a form of urbanism subordinated to the dictates of capital, where urban powers attempt to position their cities in higher positions of the hierarchical global urban network in which competitiveness is the key”.
3. The Ghanaian Urbanisation and Policy Context
3.1. Overview of Ghana’s Urban Situation
3.2. Overview of Ghana’s National Urban Policy
“Tetteh’s analysis (pp. 22–30) of the ‘role of Architecture and Planning’ in the Future of Our Cities was very insightful. He argues that central government takes the responsibility of planning the cities while city authorities are tasked with controlling the development they did not plan for”.
4. Materials and Methods
5. Analysis of Ghana’s NUP and AP in the Context of CPI and USF
5.1. An Evaluation Matrix Based on the City Prosperity Index
5.2. Evaluating the Approach to Sustainability in the NUP and AP Based on the USF
5.2.1. Urban Economies
5.2.2. Fiscal Sustainability
5.2.3. Inclusivity and Quality of Life
5.2.4. Natural Environment and Resources
5.2.5. Climate Action and Resilience
5.2.6. Governance and Integrated Planning
6.1. Sustainability Coverage in Ghana’s NUP and AP
6.2. The Policy Approach to Sustainability Based on the Dimensions of the World Bank’s USF
6.2.1. Urban Economies
6.2.2. Fiscal Sustainability
6.2.3. Inclusivity and Quality of Life
6.2.4. Natural Environment and Resources
6.2.5. Climate Action and Resilience
6.2.6. Governance and Integrated Planning
7. Recommendations and Limitations
Conflicts of Interest
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|1||“to facilitate balanced re-distribution of urban population”|
|2||“to promote a spatially integrated hierarchy of urban centres”|
|3||“to promote urban economic development”|
|4||“to improve environmental quality of urban life”|
|5||“to ensure effective planning and management of urban growth and sprawl, especially of the primate cities and other large urban centres”|
|6||“to ensure efficient urban infrastructure and service delivery”|
|7||“to improve access to adequate and affordable low-income housing”|
|8||“to promote urban safety and security”|
|9||“to strengthen urban governance”|
|10||“to promote climate-change adaptation and mitigation mechanisms”|
|11||“to strengthen applied research in urban and regional development”|
|12||“to expand sources of funding for urban development and strengthen urban financial management”|
|1||Governance and integrated planning||Achieve integrated well-planned urban development.|
|2||Fiscal sustainability||Ensure accountable governance and fiscal sustainability.|
|1||Urban economies||Attain sustainable economic growth, prosperity, and competitiveness across all parts of the city.|
|2||Natural environment and resources||Protect and conserve ecosystems and natural resources into perpetuity.|
|3||Climate action and resilience||Work toward mitigating greenhouse gas emissions while fostering the overall resilience in cities.|
|4||Inclusivity and quality of life||Work toward creating inclusive cities and improving cities’ liveability, focusing on reducing poverty levels and inequality throughout cities.|
|No||City Prosperity Index|
|Urban Sustainability Framework (USF Dimension)||NUP/AP Score|
|1||Economic Strength||Urban economies||2|
|3||Economic Agglomeration||Urban economies||2|
|4||Housing Infrastructure||Urban economies||2|
|6||Urban Mobility||Urban economies||2|
|7||Public Space||Natural environment and resources||1|
|8||Safety and Security||Inclusivity and quality of life||2|
|9||Land Use||Natural environment and resources||2|
|10||Economic Equity||Urban economies||1|
|11||Social Inclusion||Inclusivity and quality of life||2|
|12||Gender Inclusion||Inclusivity and quality of life||1|
|13||Air Quality||Natural environment and resources||0|
|14||Waste Management||Natural environment and resources||2|
|15||Energy||Climate action and resilience||2|
|16||Municipal Finance and Accountability||Fiscal sustainability||2|
|17||Participatory and Institutional Capacity||Governance and integrated planning||2|
|18||Governance of Urbanisation||Governance and integrated planning||2|
|1.National Spatial Development Framework||National.|
|2. Regional Spatial Development Framework||Administrative regions, sub-region, multi-region.|
|3. District Spatial Development Framework||District, multi-district.|
|4. Structure Plan||District, multi-district, sub-district.|
|5. Local Plan||Sub-districts (specific localities).|
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