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Open AccessArticle

Household Food Consumption Patterns and Food Security among Low-Income Migrant Urban Farmers in Delhi, Jakarta, and Quito

1
Department of Architecture, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117566, Singapore
2
Department of Health and Behavioral Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO 80217, USA
3
M2 Climate Change, Land Use, and Ecosystem Services, Agroparistech, 99190 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051378
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Agriculture)
As growing populations in urban areas demand greater food supplies, the poor—particularly poor migrants—may be at higher risk for food insecurity. Evidence suggests that the urban poor who pursue agriculture in the city as a livelihood are more food secure. Thus, it could be assumed that migrants involved in urban agriculture are also in a better position to meet nutritional needs. The aim of this research was to explore household food security among migrant urban farmers using data from studies conducted in three rapidly urbanizing cities: Delhi, India; Jakarta, Indonesia; and, Quito, Ecuador. Surveys and semi-structured interviews were conducted with market-oriented small-to-medium scale farmers in each city to understand livelihood and migrant status, household food consumption patterns, and food security. In general, we found that participation in urban agriculture had a positive impact on household food security among participants through direct (self-consumption) and indirect (improved income, improved access) means. Although each case city expressed a different form of low-income migrant practice of urban agriculture, findings suggest that growing food in the city offers some protection against food insecurity through improved quantity, quality, and diversity of food options. This study is particularly relevant in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture. These factors guide development goals and priorities. Given that rural-urban migrant trends are predicted to continue, this exploratory study offers empirical evidence related to rural-urban migrants, food security, and urban agriculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban agriculture; household food security; rural-urban migration; market-oriented agriculture; Delhi; India; Jakarta; Indonesia; Quito; Ecuador urban agriculture; household food security; rural-urban migration; market-oriented agriculture; Delhi; India; Jakarta; Indonesia; Quito; Ecuador
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Diehl, J.A.; Oviatt, K.; Chandra, A.J.; Kaur, H. Household Food Consumption Patterns and Food Security among Low-Income Migrant Urban Farmers in Delhi, Jakarta, and Quito. Sustainability 2019, 11, 1378.

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