Next Article in Journal
The Effect of Incremental Innovation and Switching-Over to Architectural Innovation on the Sustainable Performance of Firms: The Case of the NAND Flash Memory Industry
Next Article in Special Issue
Children’s Physical Self-Concept and Body Image According to Weight Status and Physical Fitness
Previous Article in Journal
Prediction of Technological Change under Shared Socioeconomic Pathways and Regional Differences: A Case Study of Irrigation Water Use Efficiency Changes in Chinese Provinces
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cooperative Learning and Students’ Motivation, Social Interactions and Attitudes: Perspectives from Two Different Educational Stages
Open AccessArticle

Physical Activity and Commuting to School in Spanish Nine-Year-Old Children: Differences by Gender and by Geographical Environment

1
Faculty of Education of Toledo, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 45071 Toledo, Spain
2
Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 45071 Toledo, Spain
3
Faculty of Education of Cuenca, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 16071 Cuenca, Spain
4
Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Murcia, 30720 Murcia, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 7104; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247104
Received: 20 October 2019 / Revised: 8 December 2019 / Accepted: 10 December 2019 / Published: 11 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Education, Health Promotion, and Sustainability)
Children’s health status is related to their physical activity levels. Active commuting is associated with higher physical activity and reduced risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease incidence, and diabetes. The objective of this research was to study the levels of physical activity and the commuting to school (active vs. passive) in Spanish nine-year-old children, analyzing the differences by gender and by the geographical environment where they live (rural or urban environment). Accelerometry was used for the measurement of physical activity: Sedentary time (min/day), vigorous physical activity (min/day), moderate to vigorous physical activity (min/day), intensity (counts/min), steps (number). The questionnaire of the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) was used to determine the geographical environment (city/urban, residential area/outside city, rural/village) and the modes of transport (active: Walking and bicycle, passive: Car, motorcycle, public transport). A total of 455 Spanish nine-year-old children (247 girls and 208 boys) belonging to the EYHS participated in this study. The results showed that boys were significantly more physically active than girls (p ≤ 0.001). Results also showed that active commuting to school was positively correlated with the levels of physical activity (r = 0.324, p ≤ 0.001). The geographical environment influenced the way in which children went to school, being active commuting to school significantly (p ≤ 0.001) less frequent in those children who lived in a rural environment (22.4%) than in those who lived in the city (57.1%) or in a residential area (62.7%). As active commuting to school means increasing levels of physical activity in both sexes, strategies should be implemented in order to encourage active commuting to schools, contributing at the same time to better health and sustainability of future generations. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; transport; children; environmental factors; accelerometer physical activity; transport; children; environmental factors; accelerometer
MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez-Martínez, J.; Aznar, S.; González-Víllora, S.; López-Sánchez, G.F. Physical Activity and Commuting to School in Spanish Nine-Year-Old Children: Differences by Gender and by Geographical Environment. Sustainability 2019, 11, 7104.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop