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Open AccessArticle

Bioeconomic Clusters—Background, Emergence, Localization and Modelling

Industrial Economics and Optimization, SINTEF Industri, Richard Birkelands vei 3, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
NORCE, Norwegian Research Centre, Siva Innovasjonssenter, Sykehusveien 23, 9019 Tromsø, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(17), 4611;
Received: 15 July 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 21 August 2019 / Published: 24 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Bioeconomy)
Industrial Clusters, especially those based on biologically sourced materials and their derivative products, can play an important role in the global shift to more sustainable production methods and ecological economic systems. The concept of cluster, however, is difficult to define and study. This paper presents quantitative methods based on Input-Output and Operations Research analysis to establish and plan cluster operations and complement that with qualitative reflections on the nature of these clusters. The purpose is to bring together both dimensions and demonstrate their complementarity, with social and policy aspects being as important considerations as techno-economic-driven ones. Using a case study, hypothetical clusters using numerical methods are created; the clusters produced by numerical methods point to and raise important issues related to the need to utilize qualitative analysis in conjunction to pure economic motives while designing/planning industrial clusters. View Full-Text
Keywords: industrial symbiosis; input-output modelling; operations research; environmental economics industrial symbiosis; input-output modelling; operations research; environmental economics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Perez-Valdes, G.A.; Nørstebø, V.S.; Ellingsen, M.-B.; Teräs, J.; Werner, A.T. Bioeconomic Clusters—Background, Emergence, Localization and Modelling. Sustainability 2019, 11, 4611.

AMA Style

Perez-Valdes GA, Nørstebø VS, Ellingsen M-B, Teräs J, Werner AT. Bioeconomic Clusters—Background, Emergence, Localization and Modelling. Sustainability. 2019; 11(17):4611.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Perez-Valdes, Gerardo A.; Nørstebø, Vibeke S.; Ellingsen, May-Britt; Teräs, Jukka; Werner, Adrian T. 2019. "Bioeconomic Clusters—Background, Emergence, Localization and Modelling" Sustainability 11, no. 17: 4611.

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