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Differences in Tourist Behaviors across the Seasons: The Case of Northern Indiana

1
Department of Integrated Resort and Tourism Management, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China
2
Department of Tourism and Convention, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
3
Korea Culture & Tourism Institute, Seoul 07511, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4351; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164351
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 12 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing for Sustainable Tourism)
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PDF [478 KB, uploaded 12 August 2019]
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Abstract

Seasonality is an essential factor influencing tourism demand and traveler behavior at the destination. As such, seasonality (i.e., the influx of tourists) needs to be managed by destination marketing organizations. Most tourism studies have focused mainly on the forecasting methods/metrics and the effect of seasonality at the aggregate level rather than understanding seasonal differences in the nature of the traveler and travel experience. The purpose of this study is to understand seasonality at both the aggregate market level and individual traveler level. As such, this study first utilizes the concept of the gravity model to understand seasonality in the number of inquiries through an official website. This study, then, uses seemingly unrelated regressions to estimate simultaneously the effect of various trip-related factors on overall trip expenditures and the length of the trip. The results show that the impact of seasonality on aggregated demand is surprisingly consistent across the seasons; however, individual-level analyses indicate that traveler behavior and travelers’ responses to advertising differ significantly across seasons. Thus, destination marketers need to understand the nature of seasonality of their specific markets more accurately to provide appropriate tourism products/services to their current and potential travelers. View Full-Text
Keywords: Seasonality; tourism demand; expenditure; seemingly unrelated regression; destination marketing; tourism advertisement Seasonality; tourism demand; expenditure; seemingly unrelated regression; destination marketing; tourism advertisement
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Choe, Y.; Kim, H.; Joun, H.-J. Differences in Tourist Behaviors across the Seasons: The Case of Northern Indiana. Sustainability 2019, 11, 4351.

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