Durability Indicators for Sustainable Self-Consolidating High-Strength Concrete Incorporating Palm Oil Fuel Ash
Department of Civil Engineering, Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology, Gazipur-1700, Bangladesh
Angelo Del Zotto School of Construction Management, George Brown College, 146 Kendal Avenue, Toronto, ON M5T 2T9, Canada
Department of Civil Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2345; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072345
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Construction Materials)
This paper presents the durability indicators for sustainable self-consolidating high-strength concrete (SCHSC) including palm oil fuel ash (POFA) as a supplementary cementing material (SCM). SCHSC mixes were prepared by varying the water to binder (W/B) ratio and POFA content. The W/B ratio was varied in the range of 0.25 to 0.40, and the POFA content differed in the range of 10–30% to produce the desired SCHSC mixes. The tests conducted on the freshly mixed SCHSCs to evaluate their filling ability, passing ability, and segregation resistance were slump flow, J-ring flow, and sieve segregation, respectively. To evaluate the durability of the hardened SCHSCs, the compressive strength, water absorption, and permeable porosity were examined along with the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV). The correlations between different hardened properties were derived to ascertain the durability indicators for sustainable SCHSCs. It was observed that most of the SCHSCs possessed excellent filling ability and passing ability with adequate segregation resistance. The test results also revealed that the compressive strength and UPV increased, whereas the water absorption and permeable porosity decreased with a lower W/B ratio and a higher amount of POFA (up to 20% weight content). Moreover, strong correlations were found between the different hardened properties of SCHSC. These correlations were used to determine the durability indicators for sustainable SCHSC with respect to compressive strength, permeable porosity, and water absorption. In accordance with the derived durability indicators, the sustainable SCHSC mixes produced in this study had the durability levels varying from “high” to “outstanding”.