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Audiology Research is published by MDPI from Volume 10 Issue 2 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with PAGEPress.

Audiol. Res., Volume 10, Issue 1 (July 2020) – 4 articles

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Article
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss: What factors influence the response to therapy?
Audiol. Res. 2020, 10(1), 234; https://doi.org/10.4081/audiores.2020.234 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 730
Abstract
The standard treatment of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss is based on oral steroids. In addition, intratympanic steroid is currently used in patients who fail to respond to oral treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in patients affected by SSHL, [...] Read more.
The standard treatment of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss is based on oral steroids. In addition, intratympanic steroid is currently used in patients who fail to respond to oral treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in patients affected by SSHL, factors that influence the response to systemic and intratympanic steroid treatment. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 149 patients, all treated with systemic steroids. Moreover, patients not responsive to systemic therapy were treated with intratympanic steroids as salvage therapy. Auditory gain was assessed through the recovery rate at the discharge and after 30 days. Statistical analysis demonstrated that patients with delayed treatment and down-sloping auditory curve presented a poor recovery. Linear and stepwise regression showed that hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia were negative prognostic factors. The prognosis of SSHL is affected by hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia suggesting that a microvascular dysfunction within the cochlea could impair hearing recovery. Intratympanic steroid treatment was used as salvage treatment, however in patients with poor prognostic factors or at risk for side effects, it could be used in association with systemic treatment. Full article
Article
Hearing at threshold intensities: by slow mechanical traveling waves or by fast cochlear fluid pressure waves
Audiol. Res. 2020, 10(1), 233; https://doi.org/10.4081/audiores.2020.233 - 06 Aug 2020
Viewed by 469
Abstract
The three modes of auditory stimulation (air, bone and soft tissue conduction) at threshold intensities are thought to share a common excitation mechanism: the stimuli induce passive displacements of the basilar membrane propagating from the base to the apex (slow mechanical traveling wave), [...] Read more.
The three modes of auditory stimulation (air, bone and soft tissue conduction) at threshold intensities are thought to share a common excitation mechanism: the stimuli induce passive displacements of the basilar membrane propagating from the base to the apex (slow mechanical traveling wave), which activate the outer hair cells, producing active displacements, which sum with the passive displacements. However, theoretical analyses and modeling of cochlear mechanics provide indications that the slow mechanical basilar membrane traveling wave may not be able to excite the cochlea at threshold intensities with the frequency discrimination observed. These analyses are complemented by several independent lines of research results supporting the notion that cochlear excitation at threshold may not involve a passive traveling wave, and the fast cochlear fluid pressures may directly activate the outer hair cells: opening of the sealed inner ear in patients undergoing cochlear implantation is not accompanied by threshold elevations to low frequency stimulation which would be expected to result from opening the cochlea, reducing cochlear impedance, altering hydrodynamics. The magnitude of the passive displacements at threshold is negligible. Isolated outer hair cells in fluid display tuned mechanical motility to fluid pressures which likely act on stretch sensitive ion channels in the walls of the cells. Vibrations delivered to soft tissue body sites elicit hearing. Thus, based on theoretical and experimental evidence, the common mechanism eliciting hearing during threshold stimulation by air, bone and soft tissue conduction may involve the fast-cochlear fluid pressures which directly activate the outer hair cells. Full article
Article
Diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in Emergency Department: Our experience
Audiol. Res. 2020, 10(1), 232; https://doi.org/10.4081/audiores.2020.232 - 10 Jul 2020
Viewed by 487
Abstract
The Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) represents the first cause of peripheral vertigo in populations and it is determined by a displacement of otoconial fragments within the semicircular canals. Following the patient’s head movements, these fragments, moving by inertia, incorrectly stimulate the canals [...] Read more.
The Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) represents the first cause of peripheral vertigo in populations and it is determined by a displacement of otoconial fragments within the semicircular canals. Following the patient’s head movements, these fragments, moving by inertia, incorrectly stimulate the canals generating vertigo. The BPPV is diagnosable by observing the nystagmus that is generated in the patient following the Dix-Hallpike maneuver used for BPPV diagnosis of vertical semi-circular canal, and, following the supine head yaw test used for lateral semi-circular canal. Correctly identifying the origin of this specific peripheral vertigo, would mean to obtain a faster diagnosis and an immediate resolution of the problem for the patient. In this context, this study aims to identify precise training activities, aimed at the application of specific diagnostic maneuverers for algorithm decisions in support of medical personnel. The evaluations reported in this study refer to the data collected in the Emergency Department of the Cardarelli Hospital of Naples. The results obtained, over a six-month observation period, highlighted the advantages of the proposed procedures in terms of costs, time and number of BPPV diagnoses. Full article
Article
Upright head roll test: A new contribution for the diagnosis of lateral semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
Audiol. Res. 2020, 10(1), 236; https://doi.org/10.4081/audiores.2020.236 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
Diagnosing the affected side in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) involving the Lateral Semicircular Canal (LSC) is often challenging and uncomfortable in patients with recent onset of vertigo and intense autonomic symptoms. The Minimum Stimulus Strategy (MSS) aims to diagnose side and canal [...] Read more.
Diagnosing the affected side in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) involving the Lateral Semicircular Canal (LSC) is often challenging and uncomfortable in patients with recent onset of vertigo and intense autonomic symptoms. The Minimum Stimulus Strategy (MSS) aims to diagnose side and canal involved by BPPV causing as little discomfort as possible to the patient. The strategy applied for LSC-BPPV includes the evaluation of pseudo-spontaneous nystagmus and oculomotor responses to the Head Pitch Test (HPT) in upright position, to the seated-supine test and to the Head Yaw Test (HYT) while supine. Matching data obtained by these tests enables clinicians to diagnose the affected side in LSC-BPPV. The purpose of this preliminary study is to propose a new diagnostic test for LSC-BPPV complimentary to the HPT, the Upright Head Roll Test (UHRT), to easily determine the affected ear and the involved arm in the sitting position and to evaluate its efficiency. Our results suggest that the UHRT can increase the sensitivity of the MSS without resorting to the HYT, thus reducing patient’s discomfort. Full article
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