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Constraints in Clinical Cardiology and Personalized Medicine: Interrelated Concepts in Clinical Cardiology

1
Independent Researcher, 55236 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Department of Cardiology, Aristotle University, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kristina H. Haugaa
Cardiogenetics 2021, 11(2), 50-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/cardiogenetics11020007
Received: 11 February 2021 / Revised: 24 April 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 10 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiogenetics: Feature Papers 2021)
Systems biology is established as an integrative computational analysis methodology with practical and theoretical applications in clinical cardiology. The integration of genetic and molecular components of a disease produces interacting networks, modules and phenotypes with clinical applications in complex cardiovascular entities. With the holistic principle of systems biology, some of the features of complexity and natural progression of cardiac diseases are approached and explained. Two important interrelated holistic concepts of systems biology are described; the emerging field of personalized medicine and the constraint-based thinking with downward causation. Constraints in cardiovascular diseases embrace three scientific fields related to clinical cardiology: biological and medical constraints; constraints due to limitations of current technology; and constraints of general resources for better medical coverage. Systems healthcare and personalized medicine are connected to the related scientific fields of: ethics and legal status; data integration; taxonomic revisions; policy decisions; and organization of human genomic data. View Full-Text
Keywords: systems biology; complex cardiovascular diseases; constraints; personalized medicine; data integration; taxonomic revision systems biology; complex cardiovascular diseases; constraints; personalized medicine; data integration; taxonomic revision
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lourida, K.G.; Louridas, G.E. Constraints in Clinical Cardiology and Personalized Medicine: Interrelated Concepts in Clinical Cardiology. Cardiogenetics 2021, 11, 50-67. https://doi.org/10.3390/cardiogenetics11020007

AMA Style

Lourida KG, Louridas GE. Constraints in Clinical Cardiology and Personalized Medicine: Interrelated Concepts in Clinical Cardiology. Cardiogenetics. 2021; 11(2):50-67. https://doi.org/10.3390/cardiogenetics11020007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lourida, Katerina G.; Louridas, George E. 2021. "Constraints in Clinical Cardiology and Personalized Medicine: Interrelated Concepts in Clinical Cardiology" Cardiogenetics 11, no. 2: 50-67. https://doi.org/10.3390/cardiogenetics11020007

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