State of the Art of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) Ecosystems and Architectures—An Overview of, and a Definition, Ecosystem and System Architecture for Electric Mobility as a Service (eMaaS)
electric Mobility as a Service (eMaaS) refers to the integration of multiple forms of eco-friendly transportation modes—including human-powered vehicles and electric public transport—and shared electric mobility services (e.g., e-car sharing, e-bike sharing, e-scooter sharing, e-bus, e-taxi) into a single mobility service that allows travellers to plan and go from A to B (and/or from B to C and/or vice versa) in an eco-friendly and seamless way. The service is offered through a single customer-centred interface and it also involves the prearrangement of electric mobility technologies and infrastructure (e.g., charging stations, energy contracts).
Goal and Research Questions
- What are existing (e)MaaS ecosystems and architectures?
- What elements and functions should an eMaaS architecture include to facilitate the integration and interaction of all actors within the eMaaS ecosystem?
- How does a system architecture support the further development of eMaaS?
2. Materials and Methods
- Database selection—In order to give the research presented in this paper a good scientific foundation, the literature research was conducted mainly in peer-reviewed general databases (such as Scopus or the Web of Science). However, due to the novelty and practical-oriented nature of the topic under investigation, it was decided to expand the scope of the literature search and take account of other search engines that include grey literature sources as well.
- Keywords specification—The literature research was specified (within title, abstract and keywords) for the combination of the following keywords—“mobility as a service,” “mobility-as-a-service,” “electric mobility as a service,” “electric-mobility-as-a-service,” “intermodal mobility,” “inter-modal mobility,” “multimodal mobility,” “multi-modal mobility,” “ecosystem,” “architecture,” “technical architecture” and “system architecture.” The search-string used was: (“mobility as a service” OR “mobility-as-a-service” OR “intermodal mobility” OR “inter-modal mobility” OR “multi-modal mobility” OR “multimodal mobility”) AND (“architecture” OR “ecosystem” OR “system architecture” OR “technical architecture”).
- Selection criteria—For each query a selection of sources was done based on, firstly, the subject addressed in the publication (or website); secondly, on the date of publication; and thirdly, on accessibility. For the first criterion, only sources that are related to either the transportation or mobility sectors were selected. For the second criterion, only sources from 2013 onwards were selected. Thirdly, only open access sources were reviewed. Additionally, the literature research was limited to sources in English language and, since the research is situated within the context of the eMaaS project, to sources focused mainly on the European setting.
3.1. State of the Art of the MaaS Ecosystem
3.2. The eMaaS Ecosystem
3.3. State of the Art of MaaS Architectures
3.4. The eMaaS Architecture
3.4.1. Shared e-Mobility
3.4.2. Data & Analytics Extension
3.4.3. Other e-Mobility Providers & 3rd Party Systems
4. Discussion & Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
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|Differences||Goal with respect to car usage||Reduce car ownership in a convenient (and more sustainable) way .||Reduce car ownership in a sustainable (and convenient) way while promoting and facilitating (shared) electric mobility and its infrastructure.|
|Transport modes||Any type of transport mode.||Only eco-friendly transport modes.|
|Main mobility solution||Public Transport usually seen as the backbone of MaaS.||Shared electric mobility as the backbone of eMaaS.|
|Energy management||Charging infrastructure and its management are not strictly necessary.||Charging infrastructure and its management are needed.|
|Similarities||Design approach||Both models have a user-centred approach.|
|Mobility model||Both models strive for multimodal and seamless mobility.|
|Operational model||Both models rely on data sharing between Mobility Service Providers and can operate under Business to Consumer or Business to Business models.|
|Travel functionalities||Both models have the same core travel functionalities—planning, booking, payment, trip execution support.|
|Data sharing||Both models rely on the data sharing from Mobility Service Providers.|
|System Architectures for (electric) Mobility as a Service||Type *||Functions||Stakeholders||Infrastructure|
|Conceptual/Technical||Travel Functions **||Data Sharing||Data Analytics||Fleet Management||Users||Mobility ServiceProviders (MSPs)||3rd Party Systems||Policy Makers||Road and/or Charging||Information & Communication Technologies (ICT)|
|König et al. ||T||✔||✔||✘||✘||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|García Hernández (Ed.) ||T||✔||✔||✔||✘||✔||✔||✔||✘||✔||✔|
|Ambrosino et al. ||C||✔||✔||✘||✘||✔||✔||✘||✘||✘||✔|
|Pflügler et al. ||C||✘||✔||✘||✘||✔||✔||✘||✘||✘||✔|
|Beutel et al. ||C||✔||✔||✘||✘||✔||✔||✔||✘||✘||✔|
|Mobility Providers||Owners of the vehicles.|
|Personal EV||Private EVs used in shared schemes such as peer-to-peer or ride sharing.|
|EV Fleets||Fleets (i.e., non-personal vehicles) include Fleet Management Systems (FMS), covering functions like maintenance and cleaning.|
|Telemetry||EV (and e-shuttle/bike/scooter) fleets include telemetry hardware; personal EVs have optional telemetry hardware.|
|Virtual Fleet||For vehicles, this is the pooling of multiple physical fleets into one virtual fleet for use by operators.|
|Charge Point||Owners of the charge points.|
|Private Charger||Own (and optionally operated) charging infrastructure—public or private (e.g., home, building).|
|Public Charger||Public infrastructure includes Charge Point Management System (CPMS) with telemetry (charger related data).|
|Telemetry||Private chargers include optional telemetry.|
|Aggregation||Facilitates seamless (vendor independent) charging (potentially with a single “charge card”) and future Virtual Power Plants (VPP) or Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) scenarios.|
|Common Blocks||Functional blocks that are common across all (or almost all) shared mobility solutions.|
|Booking||Handling of user reservations (including user preferences).|
|User Management||Includes enrolment, access to user preferences, user data management, incentive programs, optional gaming.|
|Remote Access||Based on hardware installed in vehicles to enable smart phone lock/unlock access (may be managed by third party telemetry operator). Telemetry hardware also enables collection of vehicle (or charger) data.|
|Payment Management||All billing related functions; based on mileage, time or combination; including services such as repeating fees, insurance or roadside assistance.|
|Matching||Assignment and scheduling of vehicles based on reservations and availability. Optionally based on advanced optimization and advanced analytics.|
|Advanced Functionality||Functional blocks that enhance baseline shared mobility solutions.|
|Trip Planning||Navigation. Time estimate and optional advanced analytics based features (e.g., real time congestion, low pollution route choices.|
|Multileg Support||Enabling (and scheduling) multisegment trip with multiple vehicles—for example, first leg with e-bike, second leg with shared car.|
|Ride Sharing (RS) Support||Enabling trips with multiple riders—public shuttles (with dynamic route changes) and private, ad hoc carpooling.|
|Multimodal (MM) Support||Interfaces and inclusion of additional transportation and mobility modes—public transit, taxis and so forth.|
|User Preferences||Per user preferences including fixed and changing.|
|Fixed||Long-term (rarely changing) preferences possibly entered during enrolment.|
|Adaptive||Automatically changing preferences (e.g., based on season).|
|Historic||Enabling predictive capabilities based on past choices.|
|Per Trip||At a minimum, preferences on time, range/distance and price.|
|User Smart Device App||Single app to all user eMaaS features and capabilities. Including all preferences, bills, real-time status. Optionally, data sharing (GDPR compliant) for enhanced capabilities based on advanced analytics (e.g., preference learning).|
|Smart Data Broker||Brokering between data sources using “adapters” (per data source type).|
|Analytics||Multiple advanced analytics “engines” that can facilitate enhanced functionalities for baseline systems.|
|Preference Learning||Future functionality (Optional). Learning user behaviour, trends, patterns and using for enhanced predictive capabilities.|
|Dashboard and Visualization||Simple visualization tools both for operators and for (app) users on various data (raw or processed).|
|Optimization Engines||Optimizers underlying a variety of tasks such as vehicle assignment and scheduling, route planning accounting for charging during trip and so forth.|
|Advanced Routing||Dynamic routing based on multiple constraints and adapting to (near) real time changes.|
|Complex Event Processing||Processing of streaming (real time) data by applying rules/filters/etc.|
|External Data Sources||External data feeds to the Data Broker and Analytics blocks for delivering advanced data services and enhanced features.|
|External Databases||Any third-party database with relevant data (mostly relational).|
|Smart City Data||Available Open Data both historic and near real time; city proprietary data.|
|Other IoT Data||Third party, accessible Internet of Things (IoT) devices data (mostly streaming and real time).|
|GDPR CompliantUser Data||Data that can be shared considering both GDPR and user settings, including through app usage.|
|Policy Makers/Law Regulators||Data analytics outcomes allows for more efficient decision-making practices and better policy design based on evidence and up-to-date insights.|
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Reyes García, J.R.; Lenz, G.; Haveman, S.P.; Bonnema, G.M. State of the Art of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) Ecosystems and Architectures—An Overview of, and a Definition, Ecosystem and System Architecture for Electric Mobility as a Service (eMaaS). World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11, 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010007
Reyes García JR, Lenz G, Haveman SP, Bonnema GM. State of the Art of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) Ecosystems and Architectures—An Overview of, and a Definition, Ecosystem and System Architecture for Electric Mobility as a Service (eMaaS). World Electric Vehicle Journal. 2020; 11(1):7. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010007Chicago/Turabian Style
Reyes García, José Roberto, Gadi Lenz, Steven P. Haveman, and Gerrit Maarten Bonnema. 2020. "State of the Art of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) Ecosystems and Architectures—An Overview of, and a Definition, Ecosystem and System Architecture for Electric Mobility as a Service (eMaaS)" World Electric Vehicle Journal 11, no. 1: 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11010007