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Review

Lipid-Based Nanocarriers for Ophthalmic Administration: Towards Experimental Design Implementation

1
Department of Food and Drug, University of Parma, Viale Parco Area delle Scienze, 27/a, 43124 Parma, Italy
2
Nanovector S.r.l., Via Livorno, 60, 10144 Torino, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anuj Chauhan, Laurence Fitzhenry and Ana Paula Serro
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(4), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13040447
Received: 26 February 2021 / Revised: 16 March 2021 / Accepted: 23 March 2021 / Published: 26 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Ophthalmic Drug Delivery)
Nanotherapeutics based on biocompatible lipid matrices allow for enhanced solubility of poorly soluble compounds in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases, overcoming the anatomical and physiological barriers present in the eye, which, despite the ease of access, remains strongly protected. Micro-/nanoemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) or nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) combine liquid and/or solid lipids with surfactants, improving drug stability and ocular bioavailability. Current research and development approaches based on try-and-error methodologies are unable to easily fine-tune nanoparticle populations in order to overcome the numerous constraints of ocular administration routes, which is believed to hamper easy approval from regulatory agencies for these systems. The predictable quality and specifications of the product can be achieved through quality-by-design (QbD) implementation in both research and industrial environments, in contrast to the current quality-by-testing (QbT) framework. Mathematical modelling of the expected final nanoparticle characteristics by variation of operator-controllable variables of the process can be achieved through adequate statistical design-of-experiments (DoE) application. This multivariate approach allows for optimisation of drug delivery platforms, reducing research costs and time, while maximising the understanding of the production process. This review aims to highlight the latest efforts in implementing the design of experiments to produce optimised lipid-based nanocarriers intended for ophthalmic administration. A useful background and an overview of the different possible approaches are presented, serving as a starting point to introduce the design of experiments in current nanoparticle research. View Full-Text
Keywords: design of experiments; optimisation; ocular delivery; solid lipid nanoparticles; SLN; nanostructured lipid carriers; NLC; microemulsion; quality by design; factorial design design of experiments; optimisation; ocular delivery; solid lipid nanoparticles; SLN; nanostructured lipid carriers; NLC; microemulsion; quality by design; factorial design
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MDPI and ACS Style

González-Fernández, F.M.; Bianchera, A.; Gasco, P.; Nicoli, S.; Pescina, S. Lipid-Based Nanocarriers for Ophthalmic Administration: Towards Experimental Design Implementation. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 447. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13040447

AMA Style

González-Fernández FM, Bianchera A, Gasco P, Nicoli S, Pescina S. Lipid-Based Nanocarriers for Ophthalmic Administration: Towards Experimental Design Implementation. Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(4):447. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13040447

Chicago/Turabian Style

González-Fernández, Felipe M., Annalisa Bianchera, Paolo Gasco, Sara Nicoli, and Silvia Pescina. 2021. "Lipid-Based Nanocarriers for Ophthalmic Administration: Towards Experimental Design Implementation" Pharmaceutics 13, no. 4: 447. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13040447

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