Nanotherapeutics based on biocompatible lipid matrices allow for enhanced solubility of poorly soluble compounds in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases, overcoming the anatomical and physiological barriers present in the eye, which, despite the ease of access, remains strongly protected. Micro-/nanoemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) or nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) combine liquid and/or solid lipids with surfactants, improving drug stability and ocular bioavailability. Current research and development approaches based on try-and-error methodologies are unable to easily fine-tune nanoparticle populations in order to overcome the numerous constraints of ocular administration routes, which is believed to hamper easy approval from regulatory agencies for these systems. The predictable quality and specifications of the product can be achieved through quality-by-design (QbD) implementation in both research and industrial environments, in contrast to the current quality-by-testing (QbT) framework. Mathematical modelling of the expected final nanoparticle characteristics by variation of operator-controllable variables of the process can be achieved through adequate statistical design-of-experiments (DoE) application. This multivariate approach allows for optimisation of drug delivery platforms, reducing research costs and time, while maximising the understanding of the production process. This review aims to highlight the latest efforts in implementing the design of experiments to produce optimised lipid-based nanocarriers intended for ophthalmic administration. A useful background and an overview of the different possible approaches are presented, serving as a starting point to introduce the design of experiments in current nanoparticle research.
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