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The Dual Role of Exosomes in Hepatitis A and C Virus Transmission and Viral Immune Activation

MedImmune, Granta Park, Cambridge CB21 6GH, UK
Academic Editors: Yorgo Modis and Stephen Graham
Viruses 2015, 7(12), 6707-6715; https://doi.org/10.3390/v7122967
Received: 19 August 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Exosomes)
Exosomes are small nanovesicles of about 100 nm in diameter that act as intercellular messengers because they can shuttle RNA, proteins and lipids between different cells. Many studies have found that exosomes also play various roles in viral pathogenesis. Hepatitis A virus (HAV; a picornavirus) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV; a flavivirus) two single strand plus-sense RNA viruses, in particular, have been found to use exosomes for viral transmission thus evading antibody-mediated immune responses. Paradoxically, both viral exosomes can also be detected by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) leading to innate immune activation and type I interferon production. This article will review recent findings regarding these two viruses and outline how exosomes are involved in their transmission and immune sensing. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; Hepatitis C virus; Hepatitis A virus; interferon; plasmacytoid dendritic cells; innate immunity; infection; transmission; immune evasion exosomes; Hepatitis C virus; Hepatitis A virus; interferon; plasmacytoid dendritic cells; innate immunity; infection; transmission; immune evasion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Longatti, A. The Dual Role of Exosomes in Hepatitis A and C Virus Transmission and Viral Immune Activation. Viruses 2015, 7, 6707-6715.

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