Next Article in Journal
Conformational Masking and Receptor-Dependent Unmasking of Highly Conserved Env Epitopes Recognized by Non-Neutralizing Antibodies That Mediate Potent ADCC against HIV-1
Next Article in Special Issue
The Dual Role of Exosomes in Hepatitis A and C Virus Transmission and Viral Immune Activation
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Exosome Biogenesis, Regulation, and Function in Viral Infection
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Tegument Assembly and Secondary Envelopment of Alphaherpesviruses

Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric O. Freed
Viruses 2015, 7(9), 5084-5114;
Revised: 22 August 2015 / Accepted: 26 August 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Exosomes)
PDF [2568 KB, uploaded 18 September 2015]


Alphaherpesviruses like herpes simplex virus are large DNA viruses characterized by their ability to establish lifelong latent infection in neurons. As for all herpesviruses, alphaherpesvirus virions contain a protein-rich layer called “tegument” that links the DNA-containing capsid to the glycoprotein-studded membrane envelope. Tegument proteins mediate a diverse range of functions during the virus lifecycle, including modulation of the host-cell environment immediately after entry, transport of virus capsids to the nucleus during infection, and wrapping of cytoplasmic capsids with membranes (secondary envelopment) during virion assembly. Eleven tegument proteins that are conserved across alphaherpesviruses have been implicated in the formation of the tegument layer or in secondary envelopment. Tegument is assembled via a dense network of interactions between tegument proteins, with the redundancy of these interactions making it challenging to determine the precise function of any specific tegument protein. However, recent studies have made great headway in defining the interactions between tegument proteins, conserved across alphaherpesviruses, which facilitate tegument assembly and secondary envelopment. We summarize these recent advances and review what remains to be learned about the molecular interactions required to assemble mature alphaherpesvirus virions following the release of capsids from infected cell nuclei. View Full-Text
Keywords: virus egress; virus maturation; herpes simplex virus; HSV-1; pseudorabies virus; PrV virus egress; virus maturation; herpes simplex virus; HSV-1; pseudorabies virus; PrV

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Owen, D.J.; Crump, C.M.; Graham, S.C. Tegument Assembly and Secondary Envelopment of Alphaherpesviruses. Viruses 2015, 7, 5084-5114.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top