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Article

Viral Loads and Disease Severity in Children with Rhinovirus-Associated Illnesses

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Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Av. Ana de Viya, 21, 11009 Cádiz, Spain
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Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Inova Children’s Hospital, Falls Church, VA 22042, USA
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Department of Paediatrics, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, 11009 Cádiz, Spain
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Biomedical Research and Innovation Institute of Cádiz (INiBICA) Research Unit, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, 11009 Cádiz, Spain
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Area of Paediatrics, Department of Child and Mother Health and Radiology, Medical School, University of Cádiz, 11003 Cádiz, Spain
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Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
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Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Center for Vaccines and Immunity Nationwide Children’s Hospital—The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
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Department of Pharmacology and Pediatrics, Malaga Medical School, Malaga University, 29010 Malaga, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gary McLean
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020295
Received: 31 January 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 10 February 2021 / Published: 13 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rhinovirus Infections)
The role of rhinoviruses (RVs) in children with clinical syndromes not classically associated with RV infections is not well understood. We analyzed a cohort of children ≤21 years old who were PCR+ for RV at a large Pediatric Hospital from 2011 to 2013. Using univariate and multivariable logistic regression, we analyzed the associations between demographic, clinical characteristics, microbiology data, and clinical outcomes in children with compatible symptoms and incidental RV detection. Of the 2473 children (inpatients and outpatients) with an RV+ PCR, 2382 (96%) had compatible symptoms, and 91 (4%) did not. The overall median age was 14 months and 78% had underlying comorbidities. No differences in RV viral loads were found according to the presence of compatible symptoms, while in children with classic RV symptoms, RV viral loads were higher in single RV infections versus RV viral co-infections. Bacterial co-infections were more common in RV incidental detection (7.6%) than in children with compatible symptoms (1.9%, p < 0.001). The presence of compatible symptoms independently increased the odds ratio (OR, 95% CI) of hospitalization 4.8 (3.1–7.4), prolonged hospital stays 1.9 (1.1–3.1), need for oxygen 12 (5.8–25.0) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission 4.13 (2.0–8.2). Thus, despite comparable RV loads, disease severity was significantly worse in children with compatible symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: rhinovirus; respiratory tract diseases; signs and symptoms; respiratory; infections; viral load; children rhinovirus; respiratory tract diseases; signs and symptoms; respiratory; infections; viral load; children
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sanchez-Codez, M.I.; Moyer, K.; Benavente-Fernández, I.; Leber, A.L.; Ramilo, O.; Mejias, A. Viral Loads and Disease Severity in Children with Rhinovirus-Associated Illnesses. Viruses 2021, 13, 295. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020295

AMA Style

Sanchez-Codez MI, Moyer K, Benavente-Fernández I, Leber AL, Ramilo O, Mejias A. Viral Loads and Disease Severity in Children with Rhinovirus-Associated Illnesses. Viruses. 2021; 13(2):295. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020295

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sanchez-Codez, Maria I., Katherine Moyer, Isabel Benavente-Fernández, Amy L. Leber, Octavio Ramilo, and Asuncion Mejias. 2021. "Viral Loads and Disease Severity in Children with Rhinovirus-Associated Illnesses" Viruses 13, no. 2: 295. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020295

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