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T4-like Bacteriophages Isolated from Pig Stools Infect Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis Using LPS and OmpF as Receptors

1
Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Medicum, Human Microbiome Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Benghazi, Benghazi 16063, Libya
3
Department of Aquaculture, Korea National College of Agriculture and Fisheries, Jeonju 54874, Korea
4
Division of Clinical Microbiology, Helsinki University Hospital, HUSLAB, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dann Turner
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020296
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 8 February 2021 / Accepted: 8 February 2021 / Published: 13 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage-Host Interactions 2021)
The Yersinia bacteriophages fPS-2, fPS-65, and fPS-90, isolated from pig stools, have long contractile tails and elongated heads, and they belong to genus Tequatroviruses in the order Caudovirales. The phages exhibited relatively wide host ranges among Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and related species. One-step growth curve experiments revealed that the phages have latent periods of 50–80 min with burst sizes of 44–65 virions per infected cell. The phage genomes consist of circularly permuted dsDNA of 169,060, 167,058, and 167,132 bp in size, respectively, with a G + C content 35.3%. The number of predicted genes range from 267 to 271. The phage genomes are 84–92% identical to each other and ca 85% identical to phage T4. The phage receptors were identified by whole genome sequencing of spontaneous phage-resistant mutants. The phage-resistant strains had mutations in the ompF, galU, hldD, or hldE genes. OmpF is a porin, and the other genes encode lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthetic enzymes. The ompF, galU, and hldE mutants were successfully complemented in trans with respective wild-type genes. The host recognition was assigned to long tail fiber tip protein Gp38, analogous to that of T-even phages such as Salmonella phage S16, specifically to the distal β-helices connecting loops. View Full-Text
Keywords: Y. pseudotuberculosis; bacteriophage; receptor; Myoviridae; lipopolysaccharide; tail fiber; Gp38 Y. pseudotuberculosis; bacteriophage; receptor; Myoviridae; lipopolysaccharide; tail fiber; Gp38
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salem, M.; Pajunen, M.I.; Jun, J.W.; Skurnik, M. T4-like Bacteriophages Isolated from Pig Stools Infect Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis Using LPS and OmpF as Receptors. Viruses 2021, 13, 296. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020296

AMA Style

Salem M, Pajunen MI, Jun JW, Skurnik M. T4-like Bacteriophages Isolated from Pig Stools Infect Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis Using LPS and OmpF as Receptors. Viruses. 2021; 13(2):296. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020296

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salem, Mabruka, Maria I. Pajunen, Jin W. Jun, and Mikael Skurnik. 2021. "T4-like Bacteriophages Isolated from Pig Stools Infect Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis Using LPS and OmpF as Receptors" Viruses 13, no. 2: 296. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020296

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