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Perspective

Mechanisms of Rhinovirus Neutralisation by Antibodies

by 1,†, 1,† and 1,2,*
1
Cellular and Molecular Immunology Research Centre, London Metropolitan University, London N7 8DB, UK
2
National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Petri Susi
Viruses 2021, 13(3), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030360
Received: 3 February 2021 / Revised: 21 February 2021 / Accepted: 22 February 2021 / Published: 25 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rhinovirus Infections)
Antibodies are a critical immune correlate of protection for rhinoviruses, particularly those antibodies found in the secretory compartment. For nonenveloped viruses such as rhinoviruses, antibody binding to regions of the icosahedral capsid can neutralise infections by a number of different mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to address the neutralising mechanisms of antibodies to rhinoviruses that would help progress vaccine development. At least five mechanisms of antibody neutralisation have been identified which depend to some extent on the antibody binding footprints upon the capsid. The most studied mechanisms are virion aggregation, inhibition of attachment to cells, and stabilisation or destabilisation of the capsid structure. Newer mechanisms of degradation inside the cell through cytoplasmic antibody detection or outside by phagocytosis rely on what might have been previously considered as non-neutralising antibodies. We discuss these various approaches of antibody interference of rhinoviruses and offer suggestions as to how these could influence vaccine design. View Full-Text
Keywords: rhinovirus; antibodies; neutralisation; vaccine rhinovirus; antibodies; neutralisation; vaccine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Touabi, L.; Aflatouni, F.; McLean, G.R. Mechanisms of Rhinovirus Neutralisation by Antibodies. Viruses 2021, 13, 360. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030360

AMA Style

Touabi L, Aflatouni F, McLean GR. Mechanisms of Rhinovirus Neutralisation by Antibodies. Viruses. 2021; 13(3):360. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030360

Chicago/Turabian Style

Touabi, Lila, Faryal Aflatouni, and Gary R. McLean. 2021. "Mechanisms of Rhinovirus Neutralisation by Antibodies" Viruses 13, no. 3: 360. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030360

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