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Open AccessArticle

Zika Virus in West Africa: A Seroepidemiological Study between 2007 and 2012

Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
VisMederi srl, 53100 Siena, Italy
PATH, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
Centre for Vaccine Development (CVD), Bamako BP 251, Mali
IRD, VITROME, Dakar BP 1386 CP 18524, Senegal
Medical Research Council Unit, The Gambia at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Banjul P.O. Box 273, The Gambia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(6), 641;
Received: 20 May 2020 / Revised: 3 June 2020 / Accepted: 11 June 2020 / Published: 13 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Arboviruses)
According to the World Health Organization, the entire African continent is at risk of a Zika outbreak. To increase data availability on the epidemiology of Zika virus circulation in Africa, we evaluated the immunity to Zika virus in a selected cohort of subjects from West Africa between 2007 and 2012. Human serum samples were collected in 2007 and in 2011/2012 from a cohort of 2–29-year-old subjects from Mali, Senegal, and The Gambia. A sample that tested positive by Zika virus IgG ELISA and by Zika virus microneutralization test was defined as positive. In 2007, the highest prevalence was 21.9%, found in Senegal among 18–29-year-old subjects. In 2011/2012, the highest prevalence, 22.7%, was found still in Senegal, but in 11–17-year-old subjects. During both study periods, the lowest prevalence was found in Mali, where few positive cases were found only in 18–29-year-old subjects. The Gambia showed an intermediate prevalence. In the three countries, prevalence was strongly associated with increasing age. This study contributes to understanding Zika virus circulation within three different ecological and demographic contexts with scarce or no data currently available. Results showed that Zika virus circulated actively in West Africa between the period 2007 and 2011/2012, but with some geographic specificity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Zika virus; immunity; seroprevalence; epidemiology; West Africa Zika virus; immunity; seroprevalence; epidemiology; West Africa
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Marchi, S.; Viviani, S.; Montomoli, E.; Tang, Y.; Boccuto, A.; Vicenti, I.; Zazzi, M.; Sow, S.; Diallo, A.; Idoko, O.T.; Bhat, N.; Trombetta, C.M. Zika Virus in West Africa: A Seroepidemiological Study between 2007 and 2012. Viruses 2020, 12, 641.

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