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Open AccessArticle

Potential Antiviral Options against SARS-CoV-2 Infection

1
Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7028 Trondheim, Norway
2
Department of Medical Microbiology, St. Olavs Hospital, 7006 Trondheim, Norway
3
Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, St. Olavs Hospital, 7006 Trondheim, Norway
4
Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, 50090 Tartu, Estonia
5
Institute of Genomics Core Facility, University of Tartu, 51010 Tartu, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(6), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12060642
Received: 14 May 2020 / Revised: 9 June 2020 / Accepted: 11 June 2020 / Published: 13 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Drug Combinations)
As of June 2020, the number of people infected with severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to skyrocket, with more than 6.7 million cases worldwide. Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations (UN) has highlighted the need for better control of SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, developing novel virus-specific vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 can be time-consuming and costly. Convalescent sera and safe-in-man broad-spectrum antivirals (BSAAs) are readily available treatment options. Here, we developed a neutralization assay using SARS-CoV-2 strain and Vero-E6 cells. We identified the most potent sera from recovered patients for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. We also screened 136 safe-in-man broad-spectrum antivirals against the SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero-E6 cells and identified nelfinavir, salinomycin, amodiaquine, obatoclax, emetine and homoharringtonine. We found that a combination of orally available virus-directed nelfinavir and host-directed amodiaquine exhibited the highest synergy. Finally, we developed a website to disseminate the knowledge on available and emerging treatments of COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: antivirals; broad-spectrum antivirals; antiviral drug combinations antivirals; broad-spectrum antivirals; antiviral drug combinations
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Ianevski, A.; Yao, R.; Fenstad, M.H.; Biza, S.; Zusinaite, E.; Reisberg, T.; Lysvand, H.; Løseth, K.; Landsem, V.M.; Malmring, J.F.; Oksenych, V.; Erlandsen, S.E.; Aas, P.A.; Hagen, L.; Pettersen, C.H.; Tenson, T.; Afset, J.E.; Nordbø, S.A.; Bjørås, M.; Kainov, D.E. Potential Antiviral Options against SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Viruses 2020, 12, 642.

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