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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of Flagellotropic, Chi-Like Salmonella Phages Isolated from Thai Poultry Farms

1
Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
2
Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092, Switzerland
3
DSO National Laboratories, Singapore 117510, Singapore
4
Betagro Science Center Co., Ltd., Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
5
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110, Thailand
6
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
7
Department of Genetics and Genome Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060520
Received: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Evolution of Phage Genomes)
Despite a wealth of knowledge on Salmonella phages worldwide, little is known about poultry-associated Salmonella phages from Thailand. Here, we isolated 108 phages from Thai poultry farms that infect Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Phages STm101 and STm118 were identified as temperate Siphoviridae phages. Genome sequencing and analyses revealed these phages share approximately 96% nucleotide sequence similarity to phage SPN19, a member of the Chi-like virus genus. PCR amplification of the gene encoding capsid protein E of the Chi-like phage was positive for 50% of phage isolates, suggesting a predominance of this phage type among the sampled poultry farms. In addition to the flagella, two phages required the lipopolysaccharide to infect and lyse Salmonella. Furthermore, phylogenomic analysis demonstrated that phages STm101 and STm118 formed a monophyletic clade with phages isolated from Western countries, but not from closer isolated phages from Korea. However, further investigation and more phage isolates are required to investigate possible causes for this geographic distribution. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteriophage; Chi-like virus; flagellotropic; Salmonella; siphovirus; poultry farm; prevalent; phylogenomic tree bacteriophage; Chi-like virus; flagellotropic; Salmonella; siphovirus; poultry farm; prevalent; phylogenomic tree
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Phothaworn, P.; Dunne, M.; Supokaivanich, R.; Ong, C.; Lim, J.; Taharnklaew, R.; Vesaratchavest, M.; Khumthong, R.; Pringsulaka, O.; Ajawatanawong, P.; Klumpp, J.; Brown, N.; Imam, M.; Clokie, M.R.J.; Galyov, E.E.; Korbsrisate, S. Characterization of Flagellotropic, Chi-Like Salmonella Phages Isolated from Thai Poultry Farms. Viruses 2019, 11, 520.

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