Rhinovirus (RV) is an RNA virus that causes more than 50% of upper respiratory tract infections in humans worldwide. Together with Respiratory Syncytial Virus, RV is one of the leading causes of viral bronchiolitis in infants and the most common virus associated with wheezing in children aged between one and two years. Because of its tremendous genetic diversity (>150 serotypes), the recurrence of RV infections each year is quite typical. Furthermore, because of its broad clinical spectrum, the clinical variability as well as the pathogenesis of RV infection are nowadays the subjects of an in-depth examination and have been the subject of several studies in the literature. In fact, the virus is responsible for direct cell cytotoxicity in only a small way, and it is now clearer than ever that it may act indirectly by triggering the release of active mediators by structural and inflammatory airway cells, causing the onset and/or the acute exacerbation of asthmatic events in predisposed children. In the present review, we aim to summarize the RV infection’s epidemiology, pathogenetic hypotheses, and available treatment options as well as its correlation with respiratory morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population.
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