Next Article in Journal
PSMB1 Negatively Regulates the Innate Antiviral Immunity by Facilitating Degradation of IKK-ε
Next Article in Special Issue
Next-Generation Sequencing and CRISPR/Cas13 Editing in Viroid Research and Molecular Diagnostics
Previous Article in Journal
The Oxysterol 25-Hydroxycholesterol Inhibits Replication of Murine Norovirus
Previous Article in Special Issue
Insight into the Contribution and Disruption of Host Processes during HDV Replication
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020098

Viroid-infected Tomato and Capsicum Seed Shipments to Australia

1
Agriculture Victoria Research, Department of Jobs, Precincts and Regions, AgriBio, 5 Ring Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia
2
NSW Department of Primary Industries, Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute (EMAI), Woodbridge Road, Menangle, NSW 2568, Australia
3
Australian Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, 7 London Circuit, Canberra City, ACT 2601, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viroid-2018: International Conference on Viroids and Viroid-Like RNAs)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1398 KB, uploaded 24 January 2019]   |  
  |   Review Reports

Abstract

Pospiviroid species are transmitted through capsicum and tomato seeds. Trade in these seeds represents a route for the viroids to invade new regions, but the magnitude of this hazard has not been adequately investigated. Since 2012, tomato seed lots sent to Australia have been tested for pospiviroids before they are released from border quarantine, and capsicum seed lots have been similarly tested in quarantine since 2013. Altogether, more than 2000 seed lots have been tested. Pospiviroids were detected in more than 10% of the seed lots in the first years of mandatory testing, but the proportion of lots that were infected declined in subsequent years to less than 5%. Six pospiviroid species were detected: Citrus exocortis viroid, Columnea latent viroid, Pepper chat fruit viroid, Potato spindle tuber viroid, Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid and Tomato apical stunt viroid. They were detected in seed lots exported from 18 countries from every production region. In many seed lots, the detectable fraction (prevalence) of infected seeds was estimated to be very small, as low as 6 × 10−5 (~1 in 16,000; CI 5 × 10−6 to 2.5 × 10−4) for some lots. These findings raise questions about seed production practices, and the study indicates the geographic distributions of these pathogens are uncertain, and there is a continuing threat of invasion. View Full-Text
Keywords: pospiviroid; viroid; PSTVd; tomato; capsicum; seed; trade; detection pospiviroid; viroid; PSTVd; tomato; capsicum; seed; trade; detection
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Constable, F.; Chambers, G.; Penrose, L.; Daly, A.; Mackie, J.; Davis, K.; Rodoni, B.; Gibbs, M. Viroid-infected Tomato and Capsicum Seed Shipments to Australia. Viruses 2019, 11, 98.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top