Next Article in Journal
Sediments from Arctic Tide-Water Glaciers Remove Coastal Marine Viruses and Delay Host Infection
Next Article in Special Issue
In Vivo Characterization of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) and (H7N9) Viruses Isolated from Canadian Travelers
Previous Article in Journal
Overexpression of the Interferon-Inducible Isoform 4 of NCOA7 Dissects the Entry Route of Enveloped Viruses and Demonstrates that HIV Enters Cells via Fusion at the Plasma Membrane
Previous Article in Special Issue
Characterization of Host and Bacterial Contributions to Lung Barrier Dysfunction Following Co-infection with 2009 Pandemic Influenza and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020122

Back to the Future for Influenza Preimmunity—Looking Back at Influenza Virus History to Infer the Outcome of Future Infections

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3K 6R8, Canada
2
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3K 6R8, Canada
3
Canadian Centre for Vaccinology, IWK Health Centre, Halifax NS B3K 6R8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CSV2018: The 2nd symposium of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV))
Full-Text   |   PDF [1485 KB, uploaded 30 January 2019]   |  

Abstract

The influenza virus-host interaction is a classic arms race. The recurrent and evolving nature of the influenza virus family allows a single host to be infected several times. Locked in co-evolution, recurrent influenza virus infection elicits continual refinement of the host immune system. Here we give historical context of circulating influenza viruses to understand how the individual immune history is mirrored by the history of influenza virus circulation. Original Antigenic Sin was first proposed as the negative influence of the host’s first influenza virus infection on the next and Imprinting modernizes Antigenic Sin incorporating both positive and negative outcomes. Building on imprinting, we refer to preimmunity as the continual refinement of the host immune system with each influenza virus infection. We discuss imprinting and the interplay of influenza virus homology, vaccination, and host age establishing preimmunity. We outline host signatures and outcomes of tandem infection according to the sequence of virus and classify these relationships as monosubtypic homologous, monosubtypic heterologous, heterosubtypic, or heterotypic sequential infections. Finally, the preimmunity knowledge gaps are highlighted for future investigation. Understanding the effects of antigenic variable recurrent influenza virus infection on immune refinement will advance vaccination strategies, as well as pandemic preparedness. View Full-Text
Keywords: immune response; original antigenic sin; imprinting; preimmunity; influenza virus; antigenic drift; antigenic shift; orthomyxoviridae; Spanish influenza; pandemic immune response; original antigenic sin; imprinting; preimmunity; influenza virus; antigenic drift; antigenic shift; orthomyxoviridae; Spanish influenza; pandemic
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Francis, M.E.; King, M.L.; Kelvin, A.A. Back to the Future for Influenza Preimmunity—Looking Back at Influenza Virus History to Infer the Outcome of Future Infections. Viruses 2019, 11, 122.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top