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Viruses 2019, 11(2), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020124

Modeling Host-Virus Interactions in Viral Infectious Diseases Using Stem-Cell-Derived Systems and CRISPR/Cas9 Technology

1
Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (IMBA), Vienna Biocenter (VBC), Dr. Bohr-Gasse 3, 1030 Vienna, Austria
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of CRISPR Technology in Virology 2018)
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Abstract

Pathologies induced by viral infections have undergone extensive study, with traditional model systems such as two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures and in vivo mouse models contributing greatly to our understanding of host-virus interactions. However, the technical limitations inherent in these systems have constrained efforts to more fully understand such interactions, leading to a search for alternative in vitro systems that accurately recreate in vivo physiology in order to advance the study of viral pathogenesis. Over the last decade, there have been significant technological advances that have allowed researchers to more accurately model the host environment when modeling viral pathogenesis in vitro, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), adult stem-cell-derived organoid culture systems and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. Such technological breakthroughs have ushered in a new era in the field of viral pathogenesis, where previously challenging questions have begun to be tackled. These include genome-wide analysis of host-virus crosstalk, identification of host factors critical for viral pathogenesis, and the study of viral pathogens that previously lacked a suitable platform, e.g., noroviruses, rotaviruses, enteroviruses, adenoviruses, and Zika virus. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the study of viral pathogenesis and host-virus crosstalk arising from the use of iPSC, organoid, and CRISPR/Cas9 technologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: organoid; host-virus interactions; CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing; induced pluripotent stem cell; adult stem cell; modeling of viral pathogenesis organoid; host-virus interactions; CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing; induced pluripotent stem cell; adult stem cell; modeling of viral pathogenesis
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Kim, J.; Koo, B.-K.; Yoon, K.-J. Modeling Host-Virus Interactions in Viral Infectious Diseases Using Stem-Cell-Derived Systems and CRISPR/Cas9 Technology. Viruses 2019, 11, 124.

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